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Discuss the following quotation from the textbook in relation to the TED Talk Jude Kelly:

Why women should tell the stories of humanity.

https://www.ted.com/talks/jude_kelly_why_women_should_tell_the_stories_of_humanity?language=en

“The second common element is that all feminisms hold that gender relations are characterised by inequality. Literally meaning ‘rule of the father’, patriarchy broadly describes the nature of this inequality, which sees women—and indeed the feminine—largely subordinated within the gender order socially and economically.” (P. 133) 

Discuss the following quotation from the textbook in relation to the TED Talk Karima Bennoune: When people of Muslim heritage challenge fundamentalism.

https://www.ted.com/talks/karima_bennoune_the_side_of_terrorism_that_doesn_t_make_headlines#t-5637

 “According to Mann (1988), ‘despotic power’ is when a state relies on coercion as a means of control; that is, by forcing its domestic constituents to conform to what the state wants it to do. This kind of power involves limited negotiation with citizens and groups who behave like subjects and inferiors of (and dissidents against) the authorities.”(P. 187) 

Discuss the following quotation from the textbook in relation to the TED Talk Carrie Nugent: Adventures of an asteroid hunter.

https://www.ted.com/talks/carrie_nugent_adventures_of_an_asteroid_hunter

“Science is a powerful tool that helps us form valid knowledge about reality, and technological developments lead us to new, rational ways of organising our lives. But the same science is implicated in the destruction of the environment and the emergence of new threats to our health.” (P. 347) 

Discuss the following quotation from the textbook in relation to the TED Talk Jamila Raqib: The secret to effective nonviolent resistance.

http://www.ted.com/talks/jamila_raqib_the_secret_to_effective_nonviolent_resistance

“A social movement’s action does not necessarily focus on change to government policy, although that is often an objective (and social movements can seek to change government policy in many ways, including targeting policymakers specifically). More commonly, however, social movements attempt to change public opinion.” (P. 405)

Gender Inequality and Feminism in Jude Kelly's TED Talk

The term ‘Gender’ is s cultural and social trait associated with males and females responsible for shaping roles, expectations and behaviours around what is implies to be a man (masculine) or a woman (feminine).  Gender roles are significantly the social constructs made out of biology, and it is this set of social constructs that are dynamic and differ among different social contexts. The idea propagating among the mass is that gender is enacted through social relations. The difference between men and women have always been highlighted in social and cultural contexts, and the fact that men have been placed above-above in the social ladder cannot be denied. Here comes the concept of patriarchy, a social system where men enjoy all the privileges, while women are made to live like a subordinate. Patriarchy in a broad sense describes the nature of the inequality between men and women and opponents have argued that the idea of patriarchy is a contested one. This implies that the manner in which patriarchy operates is highly debatable. This inequality among men and women is completely unjust, and there is a need of bringing immediate changes in the society in how women are looked down onto. Gender inequality has now reached to a point where actions are to be taken for achieving a more egalitarian gender order. Here comes the concept of ‘Feminism’ that has come up from the diverse set of actions and theories with the starting point that gender relations are highly patriarchal in nature and that the inequality has to be immediately transformed (Arvanitakis 2016).

The notion regarding gender inequality that is prevalent in the society exemplifies that divine knowledge is disseminated through the masculine, mostly the masculine religious figures of diverse religions across the world. On a similar note, it is often believed that the creative genius is the men and that it is the masculine figure who can be the storyteller of all world affairs while feminine figure can only be the storyteller of experiences and plight of women. This conviction is taught through communicative approaches at all levels, which are to be resisted all costs for achieving gender equality (Kelly 2017).

The difference between a ‘state’ and a ‘nation’ is profound and much debate has been put up surrounding each. The definition of a nation is widely contested as the basic concept of nation refers to the ethnicity and culture in which it is rooted. However, the other group of scholars believe that nation solely can be determined by political community and citizenship. State, on the other hand, is the foundational form of political organisation within a society. It is sovereignty that guards the basic matters of a state. The state has the power to employ the concepts of the nation as a means of increasing participation among the citizens. Despotic power refers to the situation when a state is dependent on oppression and coercion for controlling the masses. The domestic constituents are forced to abide by what they have been asked for, with limited scope for negotiation. The citizens are left with no option but to behave life inferiors of the authorities (Arvanitakis 2016).

Despotic Power and Fundamentalism in Karima Bennoune's TED Talk

A state might be torn between two parties, one supporting religious fundamentalism and the other opposing it. Fundamentalism refers to the belief in the absolute authority of sacred teachings or texts of a particular religious leader. The belief is that the religion is beyond any criticism and thus must be forced upon others. This approach is associated with despotic power wherein the common people in different countries are forced to follow fundamentalism through torture and turmoil. One example of a country where despotic power is in the rule is Algeria. The fundamentalist group in this country have resorted to harsh and cruel steps against those who oppose fundamentalism. Struggle and hardship are what the community needs to face if any voice is to be raised against the armed group, always acting ins support of their staunch theories and practices. It is fundamentalism that has often set the path for terrorism, causing mass destruction (Bennoune 2017).

Humanity has reached a point where prosperity is at its height and application of science and technology has made it possible for humans to explore what had been undiscovered for long. Modern human civilisation has been using technology and science to its optimal potential for harnessing the resources of nature and as a result of this human life has prospered. Humans are connected to nature chemically, biologically and physically, and it is the nature that has opened up a wide range of options to select for a while embracing the changes brought about in the society.  Science and nature go hand in hand to help humans gather knowledge about the realities of life and technological developments have made are easier to lead out lives. However, it is the same approach towards embracing advanced changes brought about by science and technology that has paved the way for negative impacts on daily living. It is unfortunate that modern forms of living are now the cause of unprecedented environmental degradation in the view of a wide range of undesirable changes in the ecosystem. Environmental issues have been the sole reason for forcing humanity to limit their growth as the inherent dangers lie with overseeing and squandering of natural resources of the earth. It is to be mentioned in this regard that nature also st times becomes the reason for destruction on earth. The solution to this issue lies in how we utilise the optimal potential of science to safeguard ourselves against the destructive forces of nature (Arvanitakis 2016).

It is now time to apply the gained insight, wisdom and skills across generations for protecting ourselves against the destructive forces. The power lies in the hand of human in how science and technology are applied for preventing any major hazard. Humans have the responsibility to predict and prevent any undesirable natural event that might lead to a mass destruction in future (Carrie 2016).  

Social movements define the informal group of individuals from the society who have the focus on different social and political issues. The aim of the social movements is directed towards resisting and revering social changes. Social movements have become an essential part of daily lives, and though societal conditions are necessary for social movements to achieve success, the action of the common people forms the main path of carrying out a social movement. The action of a social movement does not always have the emphasis on changes required in government policy. What is of more importance than bringing policy changes is to change the way individuals think and their opinion. Social movements are aligned with the objective of including a large population from the masses in a group and motivating them to get involved in building up changes within the society in a gradual manner (Arvanitakis 2016).

Social movements are prominent when the fundamental rights of human beings are at stake. Since giving in is not a suitable option, the only practical way of resisting negative change is to carry out a movement opposing the destructive forces. It is means of fighting back and resisting the power that threatens to wipe out all possible scope of adhering to human rights in the true sense.  A non-violent struggle, social movements are often misunderstood for being an attempt to bring changes in policies that individuals perceive to be unfavourable for their best interests. However, this is not the case. Since protests can be of different forms, it is necessary to understand the underlying reason for carrying out a social movement- creating change that is fundamental (Raqib 2015).

References

Arvanitakis, James. "Sociologic: Analysing Everyday Life and Culture." (2016).

Bennoune, Karima. 2017. "Transcript Of "When People Of Muslim Heritage Challenge Fundamentalism"". Ted.Com. https://www.ted.com/talks/karima_bennoune_the_side_of_terrorism_that_doesn_t_make_headlines/transcript?language=en#t-7600.

Kelly, Jude. 2017. "Transcript Of "Why Women Should Tell The Stories Of Humanity"". Ted.Com. https://www.ted.com/talks/jude_kelly_why_women_should_tell_the_stories_of_humanity/transcript?language=en#t-123373.

Nugent, Carrie. 2017. "Transcript Of "Adventures Of An Asteroid Hunter"". Ted.Com. https://www.ted.com/talks/carrie_nugent_adventures_of_an_asteroid_hunter/transcript?language=en#t-5049https://www.ted.com/talks/carrie_nugent_adventures_of_an_asteroid_hunter/transcript?language=en#t-5049.

Raqib, Jamila. 2015. "The Secret To Effective Nonviolent Resistance". https://www.ted.com/talks/jamila_raqib_the_secret_to_effective_nonviolent_resistancehttps://www.ted.com/talks/jamila_raqib_the_secret_to_effective_nonviolent_resistance.

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