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For this assignment research and prepare a report on Smart Grid Design And Analysis and describe the aim of smart grid.

Introduction to Smart Grid

A smartgrid can be defined as a small-scale power grid that can operate independently or in conjunction with the main electrical grid of the area. Smartgrid is a concept of transforming the electric power grid by the use of advanced automatic communication and control techniques as well as other forms of information technology. The system integrates innovative technologies and tools from distribution, transmission, and generation all the way to the equipment and appliances of the consumers. The smartgrid concept integrates markets, information, devices, processes, and infrastructure into a collaborative and coordinated process that enable the distribution, generation, and consumption of energy in a more efficient and effective way.

Some of the types of microgrids include commercial and industrial microgrids, military base microgrids, remote off-grid microgrids, and campus institutional or environmental microgrids. During the operations of the microgrid, the power system that uses electricity, the generation that is automatic is the system for regulating the output of power of the many initiators at dissimilar energy plants. Since the smart grid needs the power and load, regular modifications to the generations from the generators are required. The stability can be known by determining the regularity of the systems and if it is rising, more electricity is being produced than used, which causes all the machines in the systems to accelerate.

The smart grid is the concept for the transformation of the electric power grid by the use of advanced automatic control and communication techniques and other forms of technological information. It incorporates the advanced technologies and tools from the generation, distribution and transmission to the consumers' equipment and utilizations. Distribution systems and power generations are experiencing the new problems leading to the widespread struggles of investigations in dissimilar ways targeting the increase in the use of renewable and sustainable energy resources. The traditional smart grid depends on the fossil fuels which offer the power option for the air emissions and leads to the load shaving peak and climate change while the electronic smart grid uses the electricity hence reduced the impacts of climate change since there are no emissions.

The technology of smart grid can support the incorporation of sources of renewable energy in the future power systems. Its primary goal is to provide the best quantity of information and the control of loads for the consumers, grid operators and distributors to reduce the costs and the system demand while increasing the efficiency of energy. The concept of the smart grid is associated naturally to the creation of the energy by the use of sources of renewable energy as the smart grid promotes the social benefits like the lower cost of energy, reduced emissions and larger flexibility to accommodate distributed new renewable energy sources. These outcomes can be realized by the incorporation of various dissimilar technologies like information and communication technology for making the demand for energy and creation more controllable and predictable (Amin, 2005).

Types of Microgrids

For 100 years and above, there has been no improvement on the simple electrical power grid structure. To solve the complications of the prevailing power grid, a new idea of the smart grid arose. Among the deficiency of the electrical power grid over the smart grid is the lack of the computerized analysis, poor reflectiveness, lack of the awareness, the mechanical switches causing the slow time responses. These have caused the blackouts for over forty years. Some of the additional inhibitors are the high demographic growth and the request for energy, the failures of equipment, climate change, problems of energy storage and reduction in fossil fuels. Also, the emissions of greenhouse gases on environment have been a problem that is caused by the transportation and electricity. Therefore, the new grid was required to solve all these problems and to recognize the abilities the smart grid emerged (Amin, 2005).

The smart grid is an improvement of the existing electrical power grid. The advancement is in the reaction to varying the necessities of the consumers. Numerous safety of cyber is presented in the smart grid. In this section of literature reviews, storage systems, operation, cybersecurity are discussed (Amin, 2005).

Characteristics of smart grid

The smart grid have a property of self-healing; it can adjust and redirect the electricity flow in the time that the path of electrical transmission is disturbed. This is carried out by the self-assessment of the power system state which is continuous hence major blackouts and their frequencies can be reduced. When the number of the blackouts are reduced the economic losses are also reduced (Bazzaco, 2010).

The smart grid includes and motivates customers; there is slight interface among the suppliers and customers in the electrical power system. Smart grid gives the customer with more opinions and information about their electrical power hence will enable the consumers to make a good decision about their use of power that saves their money and promotes the competition amongst suppliers of power. This happens by allowing the communication of two way between the suppliers and customers. The smart grid also can cooperate with the electrical applications in the home of the customer which allows the appliances to plan their runtime when the power is at its lowest price (Crovella, 2003).

The smart grid is resilient to natural disaster and attacks; the smart grid is resistant to physical outbreaks and cyber-attacks. The power grid is the critical tool and damaging it can have dangerous effects on the welfare of the society.

Characteristics of Smart Grid

The smart grid provides an increase in the quality of the electrical power; the electricity is needed to be available every time from the power grid and also retain an endless voltage. Some of the procedures of manufacturing are very delicate to the deviations of voltages. A dip in the voltage can have the same problems as power loss on the industrial processes. These voltage fluctuations can cause the loss of productivity (Divan, 2006).

The smart grid accommodates all the storage and generation choices available; the incorporation of the renewable resources into the power grid has many implications. The present power grid is the model of transmission premeditated to permit the flow of electricity of one way to the consumers from single source of generation. The renewable sources of energy are normally disconnected from the traditional power sources geographically, and when they are combined into power grid it distributes sources of power. Subsequently the power grid was made for the one source of power and not many different sources of power, this results to the implications. The smart grid is able to support both new and traditional power sources (Godfrey, 2004).

The smart grid enables the electrical markets; the markets of electricity in the smart grid enable competition between the dealers of the power. This competition will enable the providers of the power to produce an efficient and cheap means of generating power. This lowers the charges of electrical generating of power for the consumers as dealers compete for the businesses. The smart grid also supports the disseminated sources of power, and this allows the new power supplies and provides of the electrical services to enter the electrical markets. The electrical markets transmit present prices of electricity based on the model of the supply demand. Electricity will be cheaper when there is surplus and expensive when the demand is high. The consumers can use the data to program the tasks that use more power when it’s cheaper (Grob, 2008).

Smart grid optimizes assets and operates effectively; the feature that makes the grid a self-healing can be used for the managing the assets. The smart grid have the ability to evaluate the conditions of apparatus automatically and manage the configurations of the equipment. The automation management can be done at a lesser cost as linked to the physical management. The management and mechanization of the apparatus can also lower the failure of the apparatus since their deprivation can be traced. The smart grid also incorporates the technologies and new innovations that reduce the loss of energy when reporting the electricity. This decrease in the loss of energy will upsurge the efficiency of the power grid by removing the extra wastes of power (Kanabar, 2009).

Smart Meter - Definition and Advantages

Components of the smart grid

The smart meter; the smart meter is an electronic device for measurement installed by the utility to enhance the communication of two way between the utility and the consumers and also manage the electrical systems of the consumers. The meter is able to communicate the real-time energy consumption of the electrical system in the short interval of time to the utility connected. In the electromechanical meters, the cumulative numbers of the units for electricity is recorded end month and the smart reader is connected to the utility which transmits the usage of electricity on the real-time basis. Smart meter facilitates the real-time pricing, recording of the electricity consumption that is automatic and a complete error eradication because of the manual readings and reduce the cost of labour and enable the designing the fault detection instantly (Kocak, 2011).

Advantages of the smart meter;

  • Accuracy in the reading of the meter; in the case of the electronic meter, the reading of the meter have to be read by the utility representative. The smart meter transmits the readings automatically to the utility connected.
  • Recording of data; the conventional meters record only the consumption of electricity in the system, time and pattern of the consumption of electricity and when and how the electricity is used. They usually record the real data corresponding to the consumption of electricity.
  • The tracking of real-time; consumers can go online and check their usage of the electricity and make changes in their pattern of consumption so that they can consume accordingly. The smart meter gives efficient control to the consumers over their usage.
  • detection of the automatic outage; the person owning the conventional meter should call the utility whenever there is an outage of power while with a smart meter, there is the detection of the outage automatically as they are with the electric grid constantly.

Better services; the smart meters are connected directly to the utility and becomes very simple to disconnect and connect to the power for a house, this saves the needs of a technician going in person to disconnect and connect the supply (Momoh, 2009)

The advanced metering infrastructure is the convergence of the grid, communication infrastructure, and the infrastructure for supporting the information. The network and centric with lack of the composite across the industry are the motivations for its developments. The problem to be addressed by the advance meeting infrastructure are normally new to the industry of utility but the procedures for implementing the large scale, solutions of network-centric with the high information assurance. The telecom, defense and cable industries can give more examples of the requirements and standard that are applicable to its implementation (Morrow, 2010).

Advantages of advanced metering infrastructure;

  • Market applications; it serves to reduce the transportation, labour, and the cost of infrastructure associated with the reading of the meter and maintenance.
  • Application to customers; it serves to increase the awareness to the customers about the reduction of the load, reduction of the bad debts, improving the flow of cash and enhance the satisfaction and convenience of the customers to provide the load management and demand response for the system performance and reliability.
  • distribution operations; curtails the load of the customers for the management of the grid, optimize the network based on the collected data, allow for the outages locations, and the services restoration, improves the satisfaction of the customers with the reduced duration of the outage and optimization of the distributed systems and generation management and gives the responses to the emergency demand.
  • Control and monitoring extend the net to the delivery of pole-top transformers and to consumers by the use of advanced metering infrastructure. More granular data field will improve the efficiency and gives the data for other applications of the smart grids like the management of outages. Advanced metering infrastructure enables the utilities to meet the collection of the meter data, participation in the responses demands, and support the tools evolution that will derive the future of the smart grid including the integration of distributed generations and electric vehicles(Piccolo, 2010).

Phasor management unit is the electronic strategies that use the digital component for handling the signals to measure the AC waveforms transmit them to phasor according to the frequency of the systems and coordinate the sizes under the control of the GPS sources of references. The analogues signals are processed and sampled by the logarithm recursive phasor to produce the current and voltage phasor. The different parts of the phasor measurement unit are shown below;  

 

Figure 1: The components of the phasor measurement unit (Grob, 2008)

The phasor network comprises the phasor measurement unit, dispersed through the system of electricity, phasor concentrators of data to the information collectors and data acquisition and supervisory control system at the facility of central control. From the samples of voltage and currents, the angle of magnitude and phase of the current and voltage signals are calculated in the microprocessor of the phasor measurement unit. As the phasor measurement unit uses the signals of the clock of the global positioning system to give the synchronized positions and the synchrophasors are normally the measured phasors (Piccolo, 2010).

The data from the dissimilar phasor measurement unit is dispersed in the grid is transported to the concentrator of the data phasor situated at the center of the control.  The concentrator of data phase sorts and collects the data by the time brand until the time of the arrival of the least data. The intense data by the PDC is used for dissimilar applications at the center of control. The collected data from many PDC supplied over a given area is passed to the super PDC.  A PDC collects the data phasor from many phasor measurement units and aligns the data by the tag of time to create the data set that is synchronized and passed the data to the applications processors.

For the applications that process the phasor measurement unit data across the grid, it is important that the measurements are aligned with time-based on their original time tag to create wide conditions for the system. The phasor measurement units usually use the line of phones to connect to PDC which send the data to wide area measurement system server. They also use the network of mobiles to transfer the data which enables the potential savings in the deployment cost and infrastructure at the expense latency of reporting the large data. The technology of phasor measurement can be used for improving the security through the synchronized encryptions like the sensing trusted base (Radosavac, 2011).

The smart grid promises the best way of consuming and supplying the power. The smart grid is the data communication network intergraded with a power grid that enables the operators of power to analyze the collected information about the transmission, generation, and consumption. To achieve all these visions of the smart grid, the transformation of the infrastructure of the power grid communication is required in the transmission and distribution stations. While the modern data for communication has evolved with the modems of telephony to the IP network, many utilities of the power are deploying the access of modem and the technology of the serial bus to communicate with their substations. The existing SCADA systems located in the substation cannot evolve and scale to support the intelligence of next generation. Since the Ethernet switches and the IP routes have become available widely, many utilities are ready to transform their communication network to the IP based on the serial-based communication.

Figure 2: The substation automation (Kocak, 2011).

Substation automation enables the part of the end to end security and allows the operators of the network to control the network devices, users and traffic. The physical security can be added on top of this security network to create the zones of security to access the control, IP cameras for monitoring and the analytics of videos to alert and protect the network administrators of the intruders. Substation automation can enable the technology for load shaving and demand response which reduce the need for building many plants to meet the demand peak (Smith, 2009).

Traditionally, the substation automation has been focused on the automation functions such as controlling, monitoring, and collecting the data within the substation. This scope allows for the control of the automatic machines in the fence substation but doesn't take advantage of the automated feeder devices. The substation automation is expected to expand with the increased control of capacitor banks, relays, and the voltage regulators. Substation automation should play the expanded role in the operation of the grid.

Advanced control technologies are the devices that diagnose, analyze, and predict the condition of the modern grid and determine the best corrective measures to prevent, eliminate and mitigate the outages and the power quality disturbances. These methods give the control transition and level of the customer to manage the reactive and real power across the boundaries of states (Momoh, 2009).

The communication infrastructure supporting the control systems of today comprise of the wide technologies that are patched together. The required information is passed from the sensor to the control system and processed by the control system and passed to the devices for controlling. This current communication infrastructure is limited to support the requirements of high speed and broad coverage required by the advanced controlled technologies. It does not give the networked it's important for the modern growth of the smart grid. The today's grid lack many of the smart sensors and the devices for control comprising the portal device for the consumer that should be deployed measure the needed data and give the control mechanisms to manage the electric systems (Morrow, 2010).

The progress being made; distribution automation technologies are being integrated currently with the data acquisition and supervisory control systems to give the fast reconfiguration of the specific sections of the distributed systems. This will reduce the impact of the system failure and faults and the disturbances of power quality on the customers. The distribution automation gives the ability to operate and monitor the devices that are constructed throughout the systems for distribution thereby optimizing the reactive supply, station loading, and outages identification and monitoring the health equipment. This operation should happen on the wider scale and quickly (Morrow, 2010).

Some of the today's technologies are based locally, like the substation, where the important data can be collected in the near real-time without the need of the wide communication infrastructure. The algorithms of control act autonomously at the local substation and are integrates with some systems at the central to enable others not situated at the substation to have the data access. The technologies of the substation automation provide the functionality and are about to be implemented at most of the utilities.

Significant advances have been made in the algorithms of the control software in every industry and more has been done in the area of the advanced control technologies.  Some of the technologies for the modern smart grid are available currently or are in the development and research. These technologies are being integrated slowly into the three important areas: analytical tools. Distributed intelligent agents and operational applications.  They are discussed as follows (Morrow, 2010).

 They are adaptive, self-healing, self-aware and semi-autonomous systems of control that rapidly respond at the local level to the human operator and unburden centralized control system. Most of these agents are normally combined with the peer to peer communication to form the system of multi-agent. These systems of multi-agents can reach the objectives that are challenging to attain by the specific systems. Some of the technologies and described below;

Digital protective relay; this can sense the electricity systems parameters, data analysis and initiate the control actions of data to protect the system's assets. The protection coordination can be updated automatically as the circuits are reconfigured and give the post-disturbance data for the event of analysis. The enhanced coordination makes sure that only last device feeding a faulted section clears the fault (Piccolo, 2010).

Intelligent cap charger; it senses both the low and high voltage sides to do the advanced control. Also, it minimizes the draw of the reactive power from the transmission system.

The tool of rating circuits; determines the accurate and safe rating of the lines and normally gives the additional capacity of lines except when the conditions of weather and loading of lines are not favourably.

The system of managing energy; this monitors the parameters of the electric systems and marketing information. It considers the presets of the consumers and act on their behalf to manage the cost of energy health and comfort.

Grid-friendly appliance controller; this senses the conditions of the smart grid by monitoring the voltages and frequencies of the systems and gives the automatic DR at the time of the systems distress and faults. Supports the programs of the demand response based on the pricing of the real time.

Control devices for the distributed power; this decreases and increases the impendence of the lines, improves the utilization of the lines that under-utilized. They can manage the systems of flexible alternating current transmission situated at the substation to provide the control of the voltages and line flow (Piccolo, 2010).

System performance; it monitors the congestion, frequency and voltages to detect the abnormal patterns of operation. It also predicts how the systems will respond if some of the equipment are forced out of the service and validates the data of real-time and models of offline systems.

Phasor management analysis; detect the grid emergencies, supports more estimation of the states, improve the modelling and analysis of the dynamics to determines if the transient swing in the system of power is unstable or stable (Radosavac, 2011).

Market system simulation; analyses the aspects of market and engineering of the smart grid and provides the open source environment where the software components developed independently can be shared by other organization and the individual,

Distribution location of the fault; data from the digital relays will be used along with the circuit database to determine the location of the faults on the distribution circuits.

The modern smart grid will rely on the automation, intelligence, and the decentralized control for the selected applications especially those with the primary local impact.

Substation automation; provides the remote control, local control and monitor and substation levels. It makes the information at the substation available for the retrieval by the planners of the substation, protection engineers and personnel for the maintenance. The IEDs and the local network are linked to many users to set the foundations for the function of the high-level remotes like the management of power system and monitoring the condition of the equipment when it is in the service.  

Distributed automation; the IEDs have been integrated with the systems of the SCADA to give the fast reconfiguration to reduce the impact of the systems form stressor faults and other disturbances of the power quality.

Asset optimization; integrates the operation of the plant, management of fuel, and the process of maintenance. It collects analyze and verify the data of operation using the specific parameters to the facility and informs the operator in the real time when the systems if running below the expectation. It identifies the conditions that can cause problems and determine the major cause and prioritize the recommended actions to be taken or solutions (Radosavac, 2011).

The advanced control method of the future need the integrated and advanced systems of communication to operate effectively. In the future, the advanced control systems will be sophisticated and will consider the national and regional perspective and will fully deploy the local ones throughout the national grid (Radosavac, 2011).

Functions that the advanced control methods will perform in the future;

Collect data and monitor the components of the grid; in the future, the low-cost transformers will measure the parameters of consumers and the systems. They will provide the conditions of the components of the smart grid and will be deployed and integrated with the ACM to give the assessment of the condition of the systems. The phasor measurement unit integrated with the GPS will be deployed to provide the status of the gird and the warning of the developing instabilities nationwide.

Diagnose and solve; the availability of the data of near real-time processed by computers of high speed will enable the experts to identify the solution for the emerging, existing, and the problems at the system. Then success probability for every solution will be identified and results made available at the human operator (Smith, 2009).

Take the autonomous actions when appropriate; the protective relaying schemes have acted independently in the response to the fault of the system for many years and will still continue to do the same. The modern smart grid will make important advances by incorporating the communication system of real-time with the advanced analytical technologies. These advances will make the possible actions for the detected problems and prevent the emergent problems.

Provide the information for the human operator; the ACM will give the information to the human operator apart from giving the actual signals to the control devices. The vast amount of collected data by the control systems is of the great value to the human operator. The data collected will be filtered and presented to the programs to create the effective interface of man-machine. The data will also give the assistance of decision. When the algorithms of control determine the actions correction needed to be made by the human operator, it will give the option to operator, and success probability for every option (Smith, 2009)

Operation reserve

Depending on the infrastructure of communication that are available and the agreement amid the DR aggregator and customer there must be many resolutions to simplify the inhabited DR to contribute in the operation reserve services. The available solution for the new applicants giving the services is used to broadband the router and internet. The communication amongst the supplier of the electricity and the central server is met by the subscriber line of digital asymmetric. Through the infrastructure, the dealer is stating the responses ahead of the real time. If the central server decided that fallback is required from the dealer then it will issue the reserve instructions. For example, fifteen minutes ahead of the real time when the decrease of the demand is required, at the reception of the reserve order, the provider will raise the cost of electricity starting from the interval of fifteen minutes for the time stated by the central server (Divan, 2006).

The price increase is delivered by the smart metering communication infrastructure which comprises wide area network. The smart applications linked to the hub get the cost increase and will interrupt their cycle. Hence the reduction in the combined consumption is met.

 

Figure 3: The operating reserve of the smart grid (Thomas, 2010)

In the power system that uses electricity, the generation that is automatic is the system for regulating the output of power of the many initiators at dissimilar energy plants. Since the smart grid needs the power and load, regular modifications to the generations from the generators are required. The stability can be known by determining the regularity of the systems and if it is rising, more electricity is being produced than used, which causes all the machines in the systems to accelerate. If the regularity of the system is decreasing, it means that there is more burden on the system than the prompt generation can give which causes all the generators to slow down (Godfrey, 2004).

Turbo governed control is the type of automatic generation. It has the stored energy of kinetic because of the large rotating masses. All the stored kinetic energy in the power system in the rotating masses is the part of the grid inertia. When loads of the system increase, the inertia grid is used to supply the load and leads to the reduction of the stored kinetic energy. Since the power of mechanical of the turbines associates with the power that is delivered, the generators of turbines have the decrease in the angular speed that is proportional directly to the reduction in the frequency in synchronous generators (Grob, 2008).

The advanced integration of the sensing, telecommunication, optimization and control have been kown to help to achieve the self-healing, interaction, reliability and efficiency of the smart grid.

Figure 4: The smart grid automation functions (Thomas, 2010)

The figure above shows the major elements that should be considered in the design of the smart grid. System of power control depends on the quality of the sensor measurement and accessibility. Faults caused by the bad or broken connections, failure of the sensor and bad communications may cause the letdown of the controllers of the power systems and leads to severe contingencies. The technologies that tolerate faults is needed in the smart grid to advance its security, advanced methods and reliability of control should meet the real time by using the methods of intellect computations. These processes give the uses like gathering and monitoring of the data from the sensor and analyze data to identify and gives resolutions (Thomas, 2010).

Intellect in the smart grid is needed in every level, it is needed to provide every substation and the power company with the CPU that communicates and monitor with others through the smart sensors. The needed data of real-time needed by large geographical area observing and controls systems will be given by the smart sensor and sent back to the main controller system that should be accurate and faster than the data acquisition and supervisory control of tradition. The increasing nonlinear and complexity, the future and nature smart grid will need accurate and fast online monitoring systems like control systems that are effective, wide-area controller for adaption and wide area monitor. The wide area controllers’ acts as the controllers’ of the globe to coordinates the actions of the local controllers comprising those on wide firms. Every local controller connects the wide area controller and receives the signals thus improving the performance and dynamics of the system (Thomas, 2010).

Control methods for the smart grid with distributed generations and renewable energy sources

Due to the increasing demand for energy and the move toward the production of clean energy, distributed generations based on the renewable energy sources had a high growth in the last decades. Photovoltaic, wind turbines, and the combined power and heat systems are installed at dissimilar levels in the systems that distribute power. The photovoltaic power plant normally operates on the extreme power point making the power available from the panels while the performance of the storage unit is controlled by the prices of energy. The output power from the storage devices can be controlled by the supervisory central controller for meeting some of the requirements in the smart grid. The controller of supervisory should take good care of the optimal power flow, the grids optimization and should letter the generated energy by the distributed generations based on the limitations of the networks (Thomas, 2010).

Wind turbines have many control options of the remote with the concern to the control of dynamic energy such as the power limiter control, maximum power control, balance control and Delta control. For the secure, reliable and efficient operation of the smart grids, the devices of controlling the voltages needs be fitted at the dissimilar parts of the systems. The distributed generations should participate fully in the control of the voltage which is not synchronized still, and this character will be highly significant for the execution of the smart grid.

  • Actions of self-healing
  • A smart grid must be able to self-heal. The grid should have the ability to take actions to produce the power continuously after the emergency happened. The microcontroller has to be linked with all the asset of the grid-tied over the consistent system of communication connected to the center of the central commander. The following are the faults facing the structure;
  • Safety; when the smart grid is connected with the computers it get involved in the available attacks of the internets like worms, spams and viruses. Also, the grid which represents the target of nations should be made secured against the attack but when computerized it becomes accessible to the attack by the hackers(Wang, 2010).
  • consistency; the grid’s operation when the communication networks take care which normally fails when required in case of the fire, storm and lightning.
  • Renewable energies
  • This is active in the research area, the renewable energies like winds or the solar when integrated with the grid experiences many challenges like;
  • Wind forecast; for the generation profile to be predicted over a period of time, the wind speed and direction should be predicted and computer the power generated by the wind. It is difficult to have the accurate estimate of wind because the wind is the intermittent of nature.  
  • Dispatch of generated wind; the operation of the systems that generate the wind power can be known as the dependent of weather and this will influence the dispatch of the generation.
  • Optimization of power flow; the generation of wind exist in the sites where the wind is blown and the sites could be in dissimilar locations from where the load is. The main challenge is the congestion on the lines of transmission. Since construction new lines are economically feasible then transmitting the power to dissimilar places over the long distance represent a severe problem(Wang, 2010).
  • Energy storage systems
  • When depending on the renewable sources of energy for the production of power, it's good to consider the storage systems for the energy.  The challenges that affect the energy storage are;
  • Cost; the systems of storing energy are expensive. , more investigation should be done to lower the price of using the systems of the energy storage for the smart grid. The addition of the systems for storing the energy is followed by the study of the power systems. Every system of storing energy have to be made for the network point being joined. This increase the cost more(Wang, 2010).
  • Non-flexibility; the energy storage system for the smart grid need a lot of materials and studies which are usually expensive. Every system of storing the energy is made for the specific configuration of the network and it's not easy to adapt to the network changes. The systems of storing energy are usually aimed for a specific system therefore they are not flexible. With the power grid in the future, it becomes useful to seek  upcoming ways to make this equipment adaptable and flexible to the many systems.
  • Impulse consumption
  • The role of the smart grid is to inspire the consumers to take part in the management of energy of the smart grid. These functions are influenced by two major challenges;
  • Privacy; customers require to interconnect with the utilities to participate in the management of the consumption of power. This shows the data sharing amount between the two entities. The utility can access the private information of the consumers since the smart meter normally collects the data and sends them to the utility.
  • Security;a collection of data is done by the wireless machine. Data can be intercepted and ruined by the bad persons and can damage utility and consumer. This matter has an important influence on the utility because the consumers are able to sell and generate energy to the grid. Corruption of data can drive a rise in the cost to the company (Wang, 2010).  

Of the types of the technologies of storing energy that could support the smart grid, the batteries that are advanced may give the best potential. The superconducting energy storage, compressed storage of energy and pumped hydroelectric all have the importance as large central technologies for storing energy. The advance s in the electronic power that converts the DC to AC power have really helped the systems of soring battery more reliable (Amin, 2005). There are four types of the advanced batteries that help in the energy storage for the smart grid;

Sodium sulfur battery; this battery operates at 300degrees Celsius using the reaction of an electrochemical between the sulfur and sodium. The negatively charged electrode with molten sodium and the positively charged electrode with molten sulfur are divided by the electrolyte of beta alumina. The electrolytes allow the positive ions of sodium to pass and mix with sulfur to form a sodium polysulfide, during the release, the ions of sodium in the electrode that is negative pass through the electrolyte to reach the sulfur in the positive electrode. The battery cannot be given time to cool because the sulfur and sodium will damage the battery when solidifies. The backup generators must be installed the make the battery hot even a major outage on the smart grid. The batteries are sealed to keep them from the moisture which could make the sodium to burn. Every cell is enclosed nu the steel to protect the sodium polysulfide form corrosion.

vanadium batteries; the vanadium is a type of battery that uses the electrolyte of the liquid vanadium stored in the external tanks that flows in the power cell that regenerates producing the electric power through the process of electrochemical. The benefit of the vanadium battery is that more power can be stored by enlarging the tank of the electrolyte. The power rating is the work of the regenerative cells inverter and fuel. The batteries have a low internal discharge rate and losses caused by parasites (Bazzaco, 2010).

zinc bromide battery; in this type of the battery, electrolyte is pushed from the two tanks of the electrolyte through the block of the battery in two circuits, one for the cathode cells and the other for the anode cells. The electrolyte in the circlet of the anode is the analyte and the electrolyte in the loop of the cathode is the catholyte. The catholyte and anolyte are in the contact through the separators of micro-porous cells. The components of ions in the electrolyte can pass through the separator of cells readily and the mixing of the catholyte and anolyte is prevented. The system is present that consist the storage of energy. System control, conditioning of power, and management of heat that can be placed for the immediately dispatchable storage of energy (Bazzaco, 2010).

Lithium-ion battery; the cathode here is lithium oxide of metals and carbon is for the anode. The electrolyte is made of the salts of lithium softened in the organic carbonated. when the battery is charged, the atoms of lithium in the cathode becomes the ions and moves to the carbon anode through the electrolyte where they mix with the electrons externally and left between layers of carbon as atoms of lithium. This procedure is usually reversed when discharged.

Capacitors; they store the electric energy is the charge of electrostatic. The cumulative array of the bigger capacitors have the best characteristic that makes them good for the energy storage of smart grid. They store more quantity of electric energy than the unoriginal capacitors. They are normally made and discharged more quickly, to give the required quantity of energy over the small duration of time.

Compressed air energy storage; this involves the compressing the air by the use of energy that is not expensive so that the air compressed can be utilized in the electricity generation in case the energy is sufficient. To change the stored energy to electric energy, the air compressed is moved into the system of turbine generator. As the air is produced, it got heated and transferred through the turbine of the system and as the turbine spins it turns the generator to produce the energy. This energy is stored in the tank or the large pipes to be used by the smart grid (Crovella, 2003).

Flywheels energy storage; the flywheel systems of energy storage include the cylinder with the shaft that spins faster within the enclosed robust.  The cylinder is levitated by the magnet hence limiting loses and wear that might be caused by the friction. The shaft is connected to the generator or the motor. The electric energy is changed to kinetic energy by the generator or motor. The kinetic energy is stored by the increasing speed of the rotation of the flywheels. The kinetic energy which is stored is changed to the electric energy through the generator or the motor slowing the speed of the rotational flywheels.

hydroelectric; the key basics of the pumped system of hydroelectric are the generator or turbine apparatus, upper reservoirs, a waterway and the lower reservoirs. The turbine is same equipment used for the ordinary hydroelectric power companies that don't incorporate the energy. The pumped system of hydroelectric power store energy by the operation of the turbine in reserve to propel the water into the vessels uphill when the cheap power is not available. The water is produced when the power has value and when it is generated, it move through the turbine and turns the generator to generate the electric power (Crovella, 2003).

Semiconducting magnet energy storage; the medium of storage of the superconducting magnet system for the energy storage comprises of the coil made of the materials of superconducting. The additional components include the equipment of power conditioning and the refrigeration system that is cryogenically cooled. The coil is ventilated and cool to a temperature below the needed temperature for superconductivity. The power is stored in the field of the magnets created by the direct flow of the currents in the coil. Once the power is stored, the current cannot be damage, so the energy is stored indeterminately.

Thermal storage of energy; there are many ways of storing the thermal energy for the smart grid. the common way that is usually used involves the making ices when the prices of energy are low so the stored cold ones can be used in the reduction of the cooling needs, especially the cooling compressor when the energy is not affordable (Crovella, 2003)

Components of smart grid

PCs security; the systems of controlling processes can be applied by the smart grid to control as well as monitor the parts of the electric power grid physically. The conventional process control systems are made to perform in the secluded environment that lacks the outside network connections, they normally lack the security built in. this is the matter of the smart grid because they monitor a large area of the power grid, to mean that there are several points of entry to the network. The process control systems used in the smart grid ensure that these matters of securities are addressed. There are many types of the process control systems and the regularly used in the power grid is the acquisition of data and supervisory control systems (SCADAs). When the computer is cooperated, only the computer data is cooperated and in some cases, some of the computer hardware may be destroyed (Divan, 2006).

 

Figure 5: The process control system intrusion detection systems (Divan, 2006)

Smart meter security; the grid is also the group of the smart grid security research security, they are the devices installed at the site if the customers, and are utilized in measuring the quantity of the utilized power. The smart security are in electrical form of the currents meters of power that are presently used. The reading of power is returned to the dealers of the power at the fixed frequencies. These types of meters are not just utilized when determining the used power by the consumer, as well as in providing the smart grid a mechanism of feedback that may be applied in modelling the requirement of power use at an extra comprehensive level than what is available presently.

The safety of the smart meter is very significant since when the reading is altered from the device can cause the inaccurate billing and wrong approximations of power usage. Alteration of the smart meter can give the attackers with the gain of money and since the device is designed at the site of the customers, the device can be accessed easily. The smart meter readings should be correct, confidential and not modified. Tools have been built already to profile the reading of the electric power usage to determine the type of the domestic appliances that are being used. This information can be useful to many individuals and companies and is a private apprehension. The accessibility of the smart meters is flexible than other components of the smart grid (Godfrey, 2004).

The smart meter security is the problem since it is not difficult to gain access physically to the meter device and there is an instant gain of money from the alteration of the systems. The integrity of the meter device and the data must be confirmed in the smart grid earlier before usage. Privacy of the smart meter reading is another a problem. They should be networked to the dealers of power for better performance of functions.

 

Figure 6: The smart meter redundant meter reading of the smart grid (Godfrey, 2004)

 

Figure 7: The smart meter intrusion detection system (Grob, 2008)

Power system state estimation security; the smart grid is able to regulate the characteristics of the power systems. This normally takes place to ensure stability in the power grid. The grid is expected to model correctly the condition of power system to make the good assessments as well as take actions on them. These model of estimations makes parts of the process control systems. The safety of the state of the power systems approximation model is significant since it is utilized by the smart grid in maintaining the electrical power system. The state of power systems approximation model is the tool that the grid process control system used to model the agent data and the sensor. This means that the securities that are important in the process control systems are also important to this model (Kanabar, 2009).

The availability, integrity and confidentiality are very important to this model. The power system security is a problem because of the likelihood of getting the wrong data involvement into the model. Financial gain and stability of the system are the motivations for their attackers. Many process control systems have the issue of false data injections and distinguishing between the false and actual data is a challenge.  There are many devices that that can separate wrong data from normal data but they are not efficient gains the attack of false data.

Smart grid communication security protocol; this smart grid depends on the protocol of communication between different components for them to function and every constituent has dissimilar requirement of communication. The necessities of communication vary to high data from low latency and every component has a given security requirement. The smart grid requires many protocols of communications to meet the requirements of the varying connections. The safety of the grid protocol of communication is significant since the communication network is the strength of the smart grid. Numerous of the functionalities of the smart grid cannot occur minus the communication process (Kocak, 2011).

The aims of security are significant depending on the type of apparatuses that are communicating and the amount and type of data they exchange. The grid communication security protocol is a problem since there are several communicating constituents each with their own requirements of communication. The technology of the smart grid requires integration with the legacy systems of power, and many of these devices have constraints that must be put into considerations. The devices of legacy can introduce the vulnerability of security typically to the system because of the lack of security support. A feature of the smart grid communication networks;

  • Performance metric; the simple work of the internet is to give the services of the data like downloading of music and web surfing. The great importance of the internet designs is to achieve high data and fairness among the consumers. Power communications are used to ensure secure, and reliable real delivery of the messages and non-real time management and monitoring.
  • Traffic models and time requirements; many internets traffic flows have the similarities like the World Wide Web. In the network of the power, more of the traffic is periodic for the purpose of the monitoring which is consistency, like the sampling of raw data in the substations of [power and periodic reading of meter in the networks of home area. over the internets, most of the traffic is best effort ones while traffics of delay sensitive has the requirements for the delay to support the multimedia services. another feature of the communication protocol is the protocol stack and the communication model(Kocak, 2011).  

Smart grid simulation for security analysis; testing the design of the grid or changes might be very difficult. The system of power might be available every time so taking it down to do tests is impossible. It is possible to model the smart grid in hardware and software and can be used to investigate the safety and other aspects of the grid. The simulation of the smart grid is important because of the smart grid testing issues. Building and modifying the large-scale smart grid for every test is not practical, it is not easy to use any system of power when operating to test since the tests cannot compromise the availability of the system. The smart grid simulation is the problem since the smart grid is the complex and large system. Most of the components of the grid are linked together and any slight changes in the constituent may cause the effects to other components in the system. The components might also have a solitary functionality in the system of power, but its implementation may be different at various installations (Kocak, 2011).

 

Figure 8: The smart grid simulation model for security analysis (Momoh, 2009)

Integrity, availability and the confidentiality are the main objectives of cyber security. The following are the cyber security necessities for the grid; attack the operations and detection resilient, compared with the systems of the legacy power, the properties of the smart grid an open network of communication over the topographical areas. It is possible to make sure that all the nodes in the smart grid to be safe to the attack of the network. The communication network is required to do the testing, profiling consistently and compare to monitor the traffic status of the network to identify and detect the irregular occurrences because of the attack. The network must be self-healing to continue the operation of the network in the act of attack. Because of the significance of the energy infrastructures, operation in the communication network is beneficial to sustain the obtainability of network in the smart grid (Momoh, 2009).

The smart grid infrastructure network integrates many users and electronic devices. Documentation is the process of the verification of the identity of the user or device as the prerequisite for giving them contact to the resources in the system’s information of the smart grid. The effort of accessing the control is to make sure that resource are accessed by the authorized person that is identified properly. Strict control access must be forced to prevent those who are not authorized from retrieving the confidential information and controlling important infrastructure. To meet the desires, the nodes in the smart grid must have the cryptographic to do the data authentication and encryption (Morrow, 2010).  

Secure the communication protocol; differing from the network of conventions, delivery of the message.

As the safety problems majorly come from the hateful attack of the cyber through the networks for communication, it is important to recognize the weaknesses in the smart grid under the attack of the network. In this section, the overview of the cyber-attack is given towards the smart grid.

In the network of communication, the security attacks can be grouped as a malicious user and the selfish misbehaving user. The selfish misbehaving user attempt to get more network than the legitimate user by impious the protocol of communication. The malicious users have no intent to benefit from their own, they obtain the information in the network illegal. The malicious behaviour is more concerned than the self-misbehaving in the smart grid because many devices for computations are used monitoring and controlling the purposes than providing the services of data like sharing and downloading. The malicious attack may bring the damages to the supply of power and power outage which are forbidden in the smart grid. The malicious attacks ate based on the smart safety purposes that are integrity, confidentiality and availability (Morrow, 2010).

Attack targeting the availability also referred as the denial of devices attack. Attempt to block, delay, unethical, the communication in the smart grid. Attack aiming the integrity illegally modify the exchange data in the smart grid and the attack targeting the confidentiality acquire unauthorized information from the sources of the network in the smart grid.

All the systems of communication are the main constituent of the grid infrastructure. Different communication such a wireless and wired can be utilized to transmit the data amid electric utilities and smart meters. The wireless communication has some of the advantages over the wired technologies like easy to connect to unreachable areas and Low cost. Normally, categories of the infrastructure of information are required for the flow of information in the system of the smart grid. The first move from electrical appliances and sensor to smart meters and another one is between the center of the utility data and the electrical appliances.

Zig Bee; this is a wireless technology of communication that have least power usage, the rate of data and the deployment cost. It is the best technology for the monitoring energy, lightning automation of home and automation or reading the meter. The communication between the smart meters, and the home displays are very important (Piccolo, 2010).

The zee bee is the best option for the management of energy and moderation of energy and ideal for the grid implementation along with its robustness, mobility, simplicity low deployment costs, requirement of bandwidth and the procedure within the spectrum unlicensed, ease in execution and networking. It also has advantages over the water, gas and electricity utilities such as the reduction and control of loads and the advanced support for metering. There are some of the problems of the zee bee such as the low capabilities, the small size of the memory and small delay requirements.

Wireless mesh; is a network of mesh of a flexible network comprising the groups of nodes where the node can form the cluster and every node can work as the router that is independent. The characteristic of network self-healing help the signals of communication to get additional router through the active nodes in case of the nodes move out of the network. In the smart meter systems, all smart device is installed with the module of radio and every of them channels the data of metering through the meters adjacent. Every meter performs as the signals repeater until the collected data attains the access of the point of electric network. Then the data collected is moved through the network of communication to the utility (Piccolo, 2010).

The mesh networking is cheap solutions with self-healing, which gives many advantages like improving the performance of the network balancing the load on the network and spreading the area covered by the network. Proper coverage can be given in the suburban and urban regions with the capability of multichip routing. The nature of the network mesh enables the meters to act like the signals repeaters. In the urban area, the network mesh has been influenced by the challenges of coverage since the density meter cannot give the complete coverage of the communication network.

Communication of cellular network; the available cellular networks can be the best option for the communication between the utility and smart meter and between the nodes. The available communication infrastructure avoids the utility from the additional time and cost of constructing a dedicated communication infrastructure. The cellular network exist already, the utilities do not have to sustain the additional cost for the construction of the communication infrastructure needed for the smart grid.

Powerline communication; these techniques use the existing power line to transmit the signal of high speed from one device to another. It is the leading selection for the communication with the electric meter because of the direct assembly with the meter and the effective implementation the infrastructure in the town where the solutions attain the requirements of the utility (Radosavac, 2011).

Security; storage and transportation of secure information are very important especially for the grid control and purposes of billing. The efficient security should be developed to avoid the cyber-attacks.

Availability and reliability of the system; providing the availability of the system is among the prioritized necessities for the utilities of power. Ageing power infrastructure and increasing the usage of energy are some of the motives for creating the unpredictability issue for the power grid. The availability of the structure of communication depends on the technology that is preferred. The wireless technology with reduced cost of installation is the proper selection for large-scale smart grid deployment.  

quality of service; the communication among the suppliers of power and the consumers of power is the main issues to the smart grid, degradation of performance like the outage or delay may affect the stability hence the quality of service must be delivered to sustain the necessities of the communication. There are numerous solutions applications of the smart grid that have been established to enhance its performance (Smith, 2009).

Conclusion

The smart grid has been conceived as the development of the electrical power grid system due to the increased diffusion of the distributed production by the sources of renewable energies, however, with the other objectives of improving the consistency efficiency and the existing power grid safety. Timely gathering of information about the failure of the equipment and natural accidents are important in ensuring the proactive reliable and real-time diagnosis of the possible faults of the smart grid. This makes the cheap technologies of remote sensing important for the safe and efficient delivery in the smart grid. In this research, the technologies of communication and necessities of the smart grid are deliberated, the components and how they work are also elaborated. The future work, grid characteristics, cybersecurity of the grid, control and energy storage of the smart grid are also well presented.

References

Amin, M., 2005. Toward a smart grid: power delivery for the 21st century. New York: IEEE Power and Energy Mag.

Bazzaco, N., 2010. The deployment of a smart monitoring system using wireless sensor and actuator networks. Perth: IEEE International Conference.

Crovella, A., 2003. Communication Networks and Systems in Substations. Melbourne: IEEE/ACM Transactions on.

Divan, R., 2006. new concept for power grid monitoring. New York: IEEE Power Engineering Society.

Godfrey, S., 2004. Smart Grid Applications. Paris: IEEE International Conference.

Grob, R., 2008. Future Transportation with Smart Grids & Sustainable. Melbourne: IEEE.

Kanabar, M., 2009. Evaluation of communication technologies for IEC 61850 based distribution automation system with distributed energy resources. Paris: IEC Standard.

Kocak, S., 2011. Smart grid communications. Paris: IEEE transactions on Industrial informatics.

Momoh, A., 2009. Smart Grid Design for Efficient and Flexible Power Networks Operation and Control. Perth: IEEE PES Power System Conference and Exposition.

Morrow, R., 2010. smart grid. Michigan: IEEE power and Energy Society.

Piccolo, P., 2010. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks. Michigan: IEEE Trans.

Radosavac, J., 2011. Smart Grid. Paris: IEEE.

Smith, W., 2009. Security and Privacy Challenges in. Perth: IEEE.

Taylor, J., 2017. Smart Metering in Micro-Grid Applications. Michigan: IEEE Power and Energy.

Thomas, I., 2010. Reliable, fast, and deterministic substation communication network architecture and its performance simulation. New York: IEEE.

Thomas, J., 2010. Malicious data attacks on smart grid state estimation: attack strategies and countermeasures. Perth: Proc. of the IEEE Conference on Smart Grid Communications.

Wang, C., 2010. Review and evaluation of security threats on the communication networks in the smart grid. Michigan: MILCOM.

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