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Importance of Job Analysis Process

Question:

Discuss about the Evaluation of Recruitment and Selection Process.

The term job analysis can be explained as the process in which identification and determination of a job are done on the details of the duties and requirement of a job. Job analysis process explains the role or importance of the duties and requirement for the job. An in-depth investigation is done with a motive to control the output. Job analysis forms a base for taking a decision regarding the compensation package and incentives for a job position offered to an individual (Goffin, et. al., 2011).

This report will discuss the concept of job analysis process along with the review of the job analysis process adopted by the organisation. There are various issues which can affect the job analysis process of the organisation. These issues can be related to management, employees or other stakeholders of the business. This report will discuss the management related issues affecting the designing of the job analysis process and manner in which these management issues can be dealt. Recommendations will be provided for enhancing the job analysis process of the organisation.

According to Cucina, et. al. (2012), job analysis process is being used by the organisation for gathering information regarding the duties, responsibilities, outcomes, skills required and environment of the work for a particular job.  Job analysis process helps in estimating the worth of a specific job, optimum utilisation of the human talent, developing realistic measurement standards for measuring performance and elimination of the unwanted jobs. Job analysis process has been formulated by the organisation for ensuring that job requirements and worth of the job is properly and effectively analysed. The organisation is conducting the job analysis process in a logical manner for ensuring the attainment of the objectives of the business. The job analysis process formulated and followed by the organisation contains different stages (Waters, et. al., 2017).

The reason behind the selection of a multi-stage job analysis process is for the appropriate management and adopting professional psychometric practices. Different job analysis methods have been used for enhancing the effectiveness of the job analysis process of the organisation. During the review of the job analysis process, few issues have been identified which have affected the process. For the purpose of dealing with these issues, there is a need to adopt strategies or measures. This review process has been initiated with the motive to identify these issues affecting the job analysis process (Saif, et. al., 2013). Review of the job analysis process is discussed below:

Review of Job Analysis Process

Formulation of plans for the job analysis: for the analysis of the jobs, there is a need to formulate plans and these plans need to be formulated before initiating the process of data collection. The organisation has placed its focus on the identification of the objectives of the job analysis. Objectives have helped in updating the description of the job in a better manner. This has helped the company in the revision of the compensation programs (Quinn, 2014). Job analysis process has helped the organisation by changing the structure of the different parts of the organisation for matching with the strategies of the business. Support from the different stakeholders has been raised which would affect the effectiveness of the job analysis process of the organisation. The focus of this stage of the job analysis process was on identification of the objectives of the job analysis and obtaining support from the top management (Armstrong, 2010).

Preparation and introduction of job analysis: preparation starts with the identification of the jobs which are under review process. Analysis of the different jobs is done separately so as to maintain the effectiveness of the job analysis process of the organisation. Different job analysis methods have been selected which have been used for the analysis of the job and its worth. These methods include observation method, interview method, questionnaire method, critical incident method and work sampling (Cottrell, 2012). This stage of the process defines the manner in which managers will participate in the job analysis process and consideration of the number of employees required for performing the job. Another aspect which is included in this stage of the process is a review of the existing documentation process of the organisation. This has saved the time and efforts of the later stages of the process. The focus of this stage is on the identification of the jobs and methodology, reviewing the existing job documentation and communicating the process to the managers and employees of the organisation (Blume, et. al., 2010).

Execution of the job analysis: after completing the planning process, analysis of the job is done. Data collected has been reviewed for analysing the completeness and has been followed with additional interview and questions which have been answered by the managers and employees. The focus of this stage of the process is on collecting data of job analysis and reviewing and complying the data collected. The questionnaire has been followed by a letter which has explained the process and instructions for the completion and returning the questionnaires of the job analysis. Adequate time has been allocated for the purpose of gathering information from the managers and employees of the organisation. The questionnaire has been used for the purpose of returning the reviews to managers from employees (Bodnarchuk, 2012).

Identification of Management Issues

Development of job descriptions and specifications of the jobs: in this stage of the job analysis process, description and specification of the jobs have been prepared. The motive behind the preparation of this draft containing the description and specifications of the job is to complete the draft and ensuring that additional clarification areas are identified in an effective manner. It was ensured while constructing the job analysis process that the managers and employees are involved in this process (Sanchez & Levine, 2009). Focus while constructing the job analysis process is essential. Focus of the organisation was on maintaining consistency in the formats and details for matching with the legal aspects. The reason behind not involving the managers and employees in this process is chances of biasedness while constructing the process. This initiative has helped in constructing a better job analysis process. After preparation of the process, it could have been analysed by the managers but it was not. It has affected the understanding level of the managers and employees regarding the job description and specifications (York, 2010).

Management and up-dation of the job descriptions and specifications of the job: this is the last stage of the process. The focus of this stage was on developing a system for the purpose of keeping the process current, updated and complying with the changes taking place in the industry or legal aspects related to the job. Due to the lack of development of a proper system for keeping the process current updated, the organisation has to repeat the entire process for several years. The dynamic environment has resulted in a change in the jobs in the organisation which has affected the job analysis process adopted by the organisation. Another reason is a change in the technology used or methods used for the job analysis process. A specific person in the HR department of the organisation was not responsible for making sure that the descriptions and job specifications are current and updated (O’Rourke, 2010).

There are different issues which the organisation is facing while conducting the designing of the job analysis process of the organisation. These issues are related to the management of the organisation, employees of the organisation, change in the business environment and biasedness. These issues affect the job analysis process as well as the performance of the employees and organisation. These issues can result in an increase in misunderstanding among the employees, ineffective job analysis process and lack of clarity among the employees regarding the job (SRR, 2014). Management issues which have been faced by the organisation include lack of support from the management of the organisation due to lack of proper communication, lack of proper knowledge and skills required for the designing of the job analysis process and lack of attention to the designing process of the job analysis process. These issues have affected the designing process of the job analysis process and resulted in developing a less effective job analysis process. These issues have decreased the quality of job analysis process of the business due to which the operations of the organisation are getting affected (Henderson & Smith, 2009).

Recommendations for Enhancing Job Analysis Process

Lack of support from the management of the organisation is one of the most important issues related to the management. Support of management is required for ensuring that proper communication the information related to the job analysis process with the managers and employees. Lack of coordination, communication and support affects the output and productivity of the employees as well as organisation. Miscommunication due to lack of support from the management can affect the flow of information between the management and employees. For the purpose of avoiding these types of circumstances, there is a need to communicate in an effective manner with the employees and managers. Job analysis process needs to be analysed by the management on regular intervals for ensuring that effective process has been developed. Lack of support can result in an increase in dependence on the analyst and wrong decisions may get made due to overburden and to finish the designing process of the job analysis process (Shibly, 2011).

Lack of required skills and knowledge among the management regarding the manner in which job analysis process is designed is another issue which needs to be dealt in a proper manner. Skills and knowledge are required for designing an effective job analysis process for the organisation. The absence of these skills and knowledge affects the execution process of the job analysis process. Management plays a vital role in analysing the worth of the jobs and preparing description and specifications. For meeting this objective or role, management needs to develop the skills and knowledge for analysing the worth of the job. Lack of knowledge and skills among the management results in an increase in the dependence on the analyst which can be biased and take decisions for its self-interest. Information or data need to be gathered for the analysis of the worth of the job. Lack of skills and knowledge can affect the data collection process and relationship with the employees of the organisation (Karikari, et. al., 2015).

Lack of attention on the part of management to the designing process of the job analysis process is a major issue which affects the effectiveness of the job analysis process as well as increases the cost, time and efforts involved in making amendments in the job analysis process. On the behalf of management, proper attention is required for the analysis process of the worth of the different jobs in an organisation. Performance of the organisation is dependent on the jobs and the manner these jobs are being performed. Lack of attention can result in designing the job analysis process without proper methods and research for gathering data. It can affect the whole process at large as the effectiveness of the process will get affected. Management needs to give proper attention to the process and different stages of the process for overcoming the shortfalls and challenges faced (Antonu, 2010). 

In this report, three management related issues affecting the designing process of the job analysis has been discussed. The impact these management related issues can be on the job roles defined, objectives of the business, the performance of the business, the productivity of every employee, the relationship between the management and employees, communication process used for sharing information between management and employees and increase in chances of theft or fraud. All these consequences are the result of management issues faced during the designing phase of the job analysis process. Lack of support from the management of the organisation for designing the job analysis process can result in the development of an ineffective job analysis process. Performance of the employees and organisation is dependent on the job description and specifications specified in the job analysis process on the basis of which worth of the job is analysed (Nagendra & Deshpande, 2014).

Lack of attention to the designing phase of the job analysis process can affect the job description and specifications described for the job. Other employees may take advantage of the lack of attention on the part of the management of the organisation. It is essential to develop the skills and knowledge among the management regarding the role of job analysis process. These skills and knowledge are used for the purpose of designing an effective job analysis process. The analyst may not perform the duties assigned to it for designing the job analysis process due to lack of control over the management of the organisation. Few techniques or measures need to be adopted for ensuring that these management issues are not affecting the job analysis process and its effectiveness. Measures which can be adopted by the organisation include conducting training sessions, implementation of an effective communication process, assigning authorities for getting the tasks done and regular review of the job analysis process (SHRM, 2012).

Training sessions will help in enhancing the knowledge and skills of the management as well as help in focusing on the designing phase of the job analysis process. The training session will help the management in being attentive to the process for ensuring that job analysis process is designed properly. This will help the organisation in reducing the cost as well as the time involved in the process. Communication process needs to be developed which will help the management in communicating with each other. Communication will enhance the flow of information and help the organisation in gathering quality data related to the analysis of the worth of the job. Communication process will reduce the chances of errors or frauds by effective sharing of the information among the organisation (Sinha & Thaly, 2013).

Tasks or duties need to be divided and assigned to every individual for ensuring that the jobs are done in an effective manner without any delay. This action will fix the responsibility of the members of management towards the organisation. It is vital to set examples for the employees for motivating them.  Management can set examples for gaining the support of the employees and motivating them. This approach will encourage the employees to provide their support for designing the job analysis process. A regular check must be kept for ensuring that every member of the management is performing the tasks assigned in an effective manner and being attentive for meeting the targets set. Corrective actions can be taken within the reasonable time for maintaining the effectiveness of the job analysis process (Ekwoaba, et. al., 2015).

Few recommendations have been made for enhancing the effectiveness of the process. These recommendations are stated below:

Job descriptions and specifications have to be updated as per the requirements of the changing aspects of the business environment. This up-dation needs to be done before starting the recruitment and selection process. Different changes are taking place in the business environment and these changes have the potential to create an impact on the effectiveness of the job analysis process of the organisation. Adopting this recommendation will help the organisation in ensuring that the process is updated as per the changing aspects of the business and not creating any harm to the process and its effectiveness. It will also reduce the efforts and cost of the company as there is no need to develop a new job analysis process for the company (Beck, et. al., 2016).

Responsibility for maintaining the job analysis process as per the current needs and updated needs to be assigned to an individual so as to ensure that the individual is set accountable for the responsibility assigned to it. In the case of an organisation, this responsibility was not assigned to a single individual due to which the effectiveness of the job analysis process of the organisation has got affected at large.


The periodical review should be done of the jobs for analysing the requirement to change the specifications and description of the job. This approach will help in performing the jobs and roles and responsibilities attached to the job in a better manner. The periodical review will help the organisation in ensuring the changing roles are being performed by the employees in an effective way for the attainment of the objectives of the organisation (Morgeson, et. al., 2016).

Managers need to be involved in the review of the draft of the job analysis process for ensuring that the managers are aware of the roles and responsibilities attached to the job. This approach will help the managers in developing understanding among the employees of the organisation. Managers will ensure that the employees have proper knowledge of the role they have to fulfil. It must be ensured that employees are fulfilling the requirements of the job defined in the job analysis process of the organisation. Managers will take a decision whether to get the review of the job analysis process done by the employee or not or if yes, then when and how. Employee participation and communication will be promoted by this approach as managers and employees will be engaged in the framing of the process of the organisation (Crowell, et. al., 2011).

Conclusion

Information is gathered and analysed regarding the content collected for designing the job analysis process. Job analysis process is an important aspect for every organisation as on the basis of the job analysis, information related to the job is provided, helps in effectual hiring purpose, helpful in construction of the combination of job-employee, observing the methods used for performance assessment and appraisal, determination of the worth of the job for estimating compensation for the job and helping in the process of analysis of the requirements of instruction and process. All these aspects help in describing the role of job analysis process or reason behind the use of job analysis in the organisation.

This report has discussed the review of the job analysis process adopted by the organisation for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the job analysis process. It has also discussed the management related issues which are affecting the effectiveness of the job analysis process adopted by the organisation. Measures or ways have been discussed which can help in dealing with the management related issues. This report also covers the recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of the job analysis process.

References

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Armstrong, M. (2010). Handbook on Human Resource Management Practices. 11th ed. London: Kogan Page Publisher.

Beck, B., Billing, D. C. & Carr, A. J. (2016). Developing physical and physiological employment standards: Translation of job analysis findings to assessments and performance standards – A systematic review. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 56, 9-16.

Blume, B. D., Balswin, T. T. & Dreher, G. F. (2010). Examining the Effects of Communication ApprehensioWithin Assessment Centres. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 83(3), pp. 663-671.

Bodnarchuk, M. (2012). The Role of Job Descriptions and Competencies in an International Organization. Savonia University Of Applied Sciencesthesis.

Cottrell, T. (2012). Interviewing efficiencies or interviewing efficiently?. The Bottom Line, 25(3), pp. 102-106.

Crowell, C., Hantula, D. & Mcarthur, K. (2011). From Job Analysis to Performance Management: A Synergistic Rapprochement to Organizational Effectiveness. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 31(4), 316-332.

Cucina, J., Martin, N., Vasilopoulos, N., & Thibodeuax, H. (2012). Self-Serving Bias Effects on Job Analysis Ratings. The Journal of Psychology, 146(5), 511-531.

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Morgeson, F., Spitzmuller, M., Garza, A. & Campion, M. (2016). Pay Attention! The Liabilities of Respondent Experience and Carelessness When Making Job Analysis Judgments. Journal of Management, 42(7), 1904-1933.

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Sanchez, J. I. & Levine, E. L. (2009). What is (or should be) the difference between competency modeling and traditional job analysis?. Human Resource Management Review, 19(2), 53-63.

Shibly, H. (2011). Human Resources Information Systems Success Assessment: An Integrative Model. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5, 157-169.

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SRR. (2014). Request for Proposal. SRR.

Waters, L. D., Mironova, O. & Stobinski, J. X. (2017). The Many Potential Uses for a Job Analysis. Journal of the Association for Vascular Access, 22(3), 124-128.

York, K. M. (2010). Applied human resource management: Strategic issues and experiential exercises. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

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