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Review existing literature on the issues related to management of human resources in mergers and acquisitions  to discuss the following:

  1. Discuss challenges from changes in culture
  2. Discuss challenges due to workforce diversity
  3. Discuss the International Staffing Practices
  4. Discuss the Ethical Issues faced by Multinational Corporation

Challenges from Changes in Culture

The organizational culture is one of the significant element of an organization. In addition, the corporate culture is oriented by various the business strategy which required changes. In other words, some employees make resistance to prevent changes in culture. The challenges from changes in culture are divided and influenced by following aspects such as:

Current versus new culture: one of the major challenges is the impact of new changes in culture. Besides that, an invisible war is conducted between current and desired culture. In other words, the people are affected by changes in culture and a conflict is created in the culture (Phillips and Freeman). Moreover, changes in culture include some dimensions which are creating an unwanted situation in the culture. Aside from that, it is very difficult for all employees to adopt current changes and replace old culture with new culture. In other words, the employees require enough time and training to compatible with changes.

Change strategies: the strategies are mainly implemented by the management of an organization. Besides that, business strategies directly affect the employee performance. In other words, the organizational strategies can discourage and disappoint the employees. Along with that, the change strategies are one of the major challenges in the culture (Wills). Moreover, the CEO of the organization has the authority to implement changes in the culture.

Communicating change: the communication change is a vital challenge in culture. Besides that, the communication is the best way to share feelings, emotions and information to each other. Along with that, changes in communication can create gaps between management and employees. Besides that, the main communication challenge is that the employees are not supporting current communicating changes in the culture. Moreover, the management should include aware employees to adopt changes through effective communication skills and motivation (Wilson).

Resistance to change:  some employees of the organization show resistance due to change in culture which effect in behaviour in the organization. Moreover, in order to prevent resistance, the management of an organization should educate their employees to determine the necessity of change in culture. Besides that, with the help of adaptation model, the management can successfully implement changes. Apart from that, resistance can be appeared by any cause inside the organization. In addition, the management of the organization should identify and response to the resources of resistance (Zineldin 9-23).

Making change permanent: it is essential for both the management and the employees to understand the necessity of changes in culture. Along with that, the management of an organization should apply appropriate strategy to implement changes in culture permanently. In addition, the management of an organization should observe the reaction and behavioural approach of the employees towards changes in culture. In other words, a communication team should be appointed by the management for successful implementation process of selected changes in work culture(Lopez).

The workforce diversity is one of the significant element of an organization which influence many challenges in the workplace. Along with that, the management of an organization needs to pay more attention on the various challenges which are appeared due to workforce diversity. Apart from that, the teamwork is a productive system which increases the productivity of an organization(Scott and Byrd). Besides that, the team leader needs to analyse the potential aspects of the followers. In addition, due to workforce diversity, the team leaders are facing many challenges such as follows:

Discuss challenges due to workforce diversity

Communication: it is the most important challenge which is influenced by the workforce diversity. In other sense, the management and team leaders both are required to communicate with the employees who work under a workforce diversity. Along with that, due to cultural diversity, the team leaders sometimes unable to recognise the needs of the team members. In order to resolve the communication challenge, the management of an organization should provide enough training to the employees(Scott and Byrd).

Resistance to change: the workforce diversity is also measured by resistance to change. In other words, some employees create barriers and refuse to accept the instruction of the team leader (Guffey and Loewy). Along with that, the team leader should report high authority about the behavioural approach of the team members. In addition, workforce diversity also creates a physiological distance between employees and the management. In other sense, most of the employees feel that the management took a wrong decision which is workforce diversity. In addition, it is the responsibility of the management of an organization to realise the employees about the significance of workforce diversity (Guffey and Loewy).

Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies: the challenges which occurred due to workforce diversity can be successfully tackled by the workplace policies. In other words, the management of an organization can reduce the impact of workforce diversity challenges by applying workplace policies and legislations(Dickie and Soldan). On the other hand, the organizational policies and regulations are playing an essential role in controlling and managing employee's activity. In addition, the management can also control the workforce diversity with the help of organizational polices and regulation. Besides that, if any employee conduct resistance due to workforce diversity can be targeted by the management of the organization. In addition, the management even can terminate that particular employee for bleaching workplace rules and policies. Moreover, with the help of workplace rules and policies, an organization can successfully implement workforce diversity in the workplace(Dickie and Soldan).

Successful management of diversity in the workplace: the role of management is an important segment for reducing the impact of workforce diversity-related challenges. In other words, with the help of successful management, an organization can implement workforce diversity in the workplace. On the other side, the management of an organization only can control resistance which prevents workforce diversity in the workplace. In addition, the management of an organization should observe the activity of the individuals for a successful workforce diversity implementation process. Along with that, the main challenge of workforce diversity is employee resistance which can be effectively managed by a successful management of an organization(Burgin).

In the domestic purpose, selecting and staffing good employees are difficult for different purpose like choosing, finding and placing. In other words, staffing includes three major parts such as finding, placing and choosing. Besides that, international staffing practices are more difficult than domestic staffing. According to recent reports, most of the Russians had available resumes in order to give it to potential employers along with vacant positions. On the other hand, recruiting and selecting process are controlled and managed by the human resource management of an organization(Burgin). Along with that, the recruitment process includes some stages such as interview, work sample, background analyse and testing. The HR managers use these techniques on a limited basis. For example, a systematic selection is an essential recruitment process in the Russia, and many developed and Soviet-bloc countries are demanding educated, skilled, young and confident candidates. In other words, most of the foreign international companies want fresh and young candidates from outside of the country (Reiche 523-536).

3. Discuss the International Staffing Practices

On the other side, one of the major challenges which are faced by the organization is to determine the mix of local employees, employees from outside of home country and employees of the home country. In other words, the management of an organization is facing difficulty to build an effective co-ordination between local, national and international employees. The management of an organization is also facing difficulties in overseas staffing operations which includes financial expenses (Reiche 523-536). In other sense, the management needs to bear establishing the cost of an international employee. In this manner, according to three-year job assignment agreement, the estimated cost for positioning a manager or other professional in other country from far away home country is near about $1 million. On the other hand, if the management of an American organization places a manager outside of the USA, the estimated cost will be double of a manager’s annual salary. In addition, if the management of an American company sends a manager to the Japan, then a huge amount will be paid to the manager which includes costs of schooling subsidies, tax equalisation and housing costs (Fuller). Apart from that, if a professional executive or a manger suddenly quit an international assignment before a certain period due to the personal reason or home transfer reason, the associated costs will exceed the annual salary of that manager. In addition, all additional charges are required to be paid by the management of the American company.

Moreover, the international staffing practice is an effective and beneficial process which used by much famous organization. For example Google’s CEO Mr Sundar Pichai who is an Indian. In other words, the international staffing practice might be beneficial for the organization if they recruit efficient and skilled employees who can expand the brand esteem of the organization to across the world (Fuller).

Multinational corporations mainly control or own service and production facilities to other countries where they already extended business. According to Vallas (2000), the ethical issues are influenced by some elements such as the way of life; participation is a community and code of practice (Scullion and Collings). The decision making process of an organization includes business ethics as a fundamental part. On the other hand, due to the cultural difference between the host country and home country, ethical conflicts can occur. In addition, Multinational corporations are operating a business in overseas countries which includes individual culture, laws and socio-ethical practice. In other words, Multinational corporations need to consider ethical dilemma of different countries in order to conduct a successful business. The working environment is another significant element which also should be considered by Multinational corporations.

According to Mohan & Vilcox (2007), Multinational corporations should contact aware their employees about the significance of local cultural guidelines of the home countries (Rodrigues). According to Mohan & Vilcox (2007) also stated that what is being culturally and ethically right in the home country does not mean that it is considerable in rest countries also. In other words, some ethical issues can be right in the home country but might be wrong in the host country. Apart from that, Shaw (2010) stated that the difference between host country’s needs and home country’s requirements can be considered as common incidence. While operating and exploiting host countries, the multinational corporations effectively analyse ethical dilemma of the host countries (DE MEZA 237-241). Along with that, perception is an important factor which mainly creates ethical conflicts. Besides that, Multinational corporations should improve their view of perception which makes different in ethical and unethical approach. Moreover, the environmental issue also required ethical consideration of Multinational corporations. In other words, Multinational corporations should respect the rules and regulations regarding environment protection related initiatives. According to Gangone, (2010), the foreign direct investment is also required for the technical growth of the host country. In addition, Multinational corporations require favourable business environment and sponsors in order to expand business in host countries. The socio-cultural factor should be considered by the Multinational corporations (DE MEZA 237-241). In other sense, Multinational corporations should respect the cultural values in order to prevent ethical diversity in the host country. Moreover, Multinational corporations should focus on the relationship between local, national and international employees who came from different cultural background. Furthermore, in order to extend the business for long-term, Multinational corporations should consider all ethical issue of the host countries. With the help of corresponding ethical behaviour, Multinational corporations can win the hearts of both the employees and the employees. In other words, by showing respect to the tradition of various countries, Multinational corporations can increase profit and improve organizational reputation and brand value(Sears).

References

Burgin, M. S. Theory Of Information. 1st ed. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Pub Co Inc., 2010. Print.

DE MEZA, DAVID E. "MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN Ldcs: A COMMENT". Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 39.3 (2009): 237-241. Web.

Dickie, Carolyn, and Zhanna Soldan. Diversity Management. 1st ed. Prahran, Vic.: Tilde University Press, 2008. Print.

Fuller, Kathleen. Special Assignment. 1st ed. New York: Avalon Books, 2005. Print.

Guffey, Mary Ellen, and Dana Loewy. Essentials Of Business Communication. 1st ed. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Lopez, Barry Holstun. Resistance. 1st ed. New York: Vintage Books, 2005. Print.

Phillips, Robert, and R. Edward Freeman. Stakeholders. 1st ed. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2010. Print.

Reiche, B. Sebastian. "The Effect Of International Staffing Practices On Subsidiary Staff Retention In Multinational Corporations". The International Journal of Human Resource Management 18.4 (2007): 523-536. Web.

Rodrigues, Carl. International Management. 1st ed. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2009. Print.

Scott, Chaunda L, and Marilyn Y Byrd. Handbook Of Research On Workforce Diversity In A Global Society. 1st ed. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2012. Print.

Scullion, Hugh, and David G Collings. Global Staffing. 1st ed. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Sears, David. Successful Talent Strategies. 1st ed. New York: AMACOM, 2003. Print.

Wills, J. Group Purchasing Organizations. 1st ed. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office, 2010. Print.

Wilson, Jerry R. 151 Quick Ideas To Get New Customers. 1st ed. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 2005. Print.

Zineldin, Mosad. "Beyond Relationship Marketing: Technologicalship Marketing". Marketing Intelligence & Planning 18.1 (2000): 9-23. Web.

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