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Objectives of the study

The Human Resource managers have a number of responsibilities that contribute in their job roles. One of them are advocating the positive environment for the workforce. This is necessary for maintaining the mental health of the employees within the workplace (Saks 2021). This study aims to work on the strategies that the HR manager can use to maintain the mental health of the employees. The case of Malaysia Airlines Berhad will be considered for this study. The context of mental health in work setting was present in the context for long. The pandemic has increased the importance of mental health in workplace altogether. The mental health problems worldwide have increased after the pandemic occurred. The statistics regarding the mental illness is appalling worldwide. In such scenario, the organisations realized that they have to manage their employee mental health for their retention, productivity and performances. According to Haque (2021), in a flourishing organisation. Mental health and human resource management goes hand in hand. The organisational stress not only hampers the individual performance, but also can affect the organisational production and reputation. This study will analyze the case of Malaysian Airlines to understand what role the HR managers can have in managing the workforce mental health and how they can improve their strategies further.

The business world. Specifically, the hospitality sector is facing the aftermath of the pandemic like no other sector. According to Azizi et al. (2021), the hospitality sector is one of the majorly affected sectors that has faced huge employees’ layoffs, stressed work environment and the lack of profits for long time. All of these has caused the mental health issues among the workforce of this sector. As the part of the services sector, the airlines industry in Malaysia has faced the mental health issues among the employees even before the pandemic. The human resource management needs to understand the importance of mental health among the employees and work for the positive outcomes. This study will address the issues that the Malaysian airlines employees are facing and how the HR managers can work to resolve these issues for the workforce.

The objectives of this study are-

  • To understand the concepts of mental health in workplace and human resource management
  • To analyse the factors contributing in mental health issues in Malaysian airlines Berhad.
  • To examine the role of Human resource management in managing the mental health of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad.
  • To recommend effective solution to the mental health issues of the employees in the Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

What is the role of human resource management in managing the mental health of Malaysian Airlines Berhad?

H0: HR has no impact on the mental health aspects of the employees.

H1: HR has a direct impact on the mental health aspects of employees.

The significance of the study lies in understanding the theories of human resource management and its link to the management of mental health of the employees. This study will address the problems that the employees face in the airlines and the way the HR managers can resolve these issues. The recommendations for the organisation to improve their employee mental health will be provided with the study findings.

This study will be addressed to the HR manager who wants to address the metal health issues within the organisation. The role of human resource management in the mental welfare maintenance of the workforce has been discussed in this study. The methods that will be used for this study is primary quantitative method. The reason for choosing the method is to achieve the research objectives effectively. The primary study will be helpful in understanding the mental health issues that the employees of Malaysian Airlines are facing and how the HR are addressing these issues within their organisational set up. This study will be instrumental in more generalized application of the mental health management process in the hospitality industry.

Mental Health in employees

Mental Health in employees:  The concept of mental health is vast an anything that is related to the psychological well- being. This term is defined as the social, emotional and psychological wellbeing of an individual (Kalfa, Branicki and Brammer 2021). A good mental health improves the productivity and working capability of the employees. In the workplaces, the employees have to go through different kinds of challenges. These challenges can cause stress, depression, burnouts. All these are considered to be the mental health issues. These can lead to further deterioration of the employee health both in physical and mental level.

HRM: HRM or Human resource management is the process of managing, supporting and improving the human resources in an organisation. Human Resource managers has the responsibility to strategically manage the human resources and gain competitive advantage for the organisation (Karatepe, Saydam and Okumus 2021). The importance of human resource management is to maximize the employee services and achieve organisational objectives.

Chapter 1: Chapter one is the introduction chapter where the researcher has presented the research objectives, aims and the purpose of the study along with the research scopes. The significance of study and the research background has been provided to make the readers understand the later part of the study easily.

Chapter 2: the second chapter concerns with the review of existing literature. This will deal with the theories and concepts related to the ley terms of the study. The existing literature will address the study objectives and problems.

Chapter 3: Chapter 3 presents the account of what methods were used for completing this study effectively.

Chapter 4: Chapter 4 will have the analysis of the data, research finding and discussion on the findings. This is a significant chapter that will discuss the primary data collected and link it with the theoretical aspects to reach to the study results.

Chapter 5: The chapter 5 is the conclusion chapter where the researcher will provide the concluding statements and will link the study objectives with the study findings.

Literature review is the tool to analyze the existing studies on a given topic so that the theoretical foundation of a work could be established. The researcher has included the existing literature to understand the basic concepts, keywords and theories associated with mental heal and HRM practices. The researcher has searched for the articles through the keywords like HRM, mental health, organisation workforce mental health and role of HR. The keywords have led to many articles and journal that have important information about the research topic. Finally, the researcher has selected the most insightful articles for this study and used it in the literature review part.

Human resource management or HRM is the strategic process of managing the human resources in an organisation in a way that would contribute in the competitive advantage gaining. The human resources are the most important part of an organisational operations. They are the direct contributors in the company functions. The employee performances maximization is the aim of the companies so that they can have overall objectives gained. The Human resource managers takes in account the human resources while finalizing their policies and management systems.

HRM

According to Khanal et al. (2020), the main purpose of the HRM s to make sure that the potential of the human resources is effectively used and the organisation is gaining success through their people. On the other hand, Kniffin et al. (2021), stated there are two definition to look after the topic of human resource management. One of the definitions is related to the traditional human resource management that is to manage people in a structure and organized way. The modern definition of HR is concerned about a broader perspective that includes the relationship management of the employer and the employees. This is called the employee relations management that has been included in the work role of the HR managers. The previous definitions of HRM was based on the personnel management, while the modern HRM responsibilities have a great deal with managing the people as a resource within the company.

The experts have given priority the objectives of the HRM in the organisational levels. The main objectives of HRM ranges between the acquisition, controlling, managing, maintaining and developing the human resources in the company. The human resource departments of the organisations work from recruiting the right talents to training and retaining them within the organisation. There are many other factors in the company that influences the employee satisfaction and retention, the HR policies are one of these major factors. Therefore, the main concepts of HRM covers the area of employee wellbeing, managing and work culture building in the organisation.

The organisational life cycle theory connects the growth stages of an organisation with the specific management of the resources. This theory was developed by Cameron and Whetton in 1981, where they stated that the development of the organisation is proceeded through five stages- formation, growth, maturity, decline and death. The theory states that the organisations must try to manage their human resources according to the stage of growth they are in. The strategies of human resource management should be decided on the way the company wants to react to their external environmental effects. The understanding of the organisational life cycle will help the HR managers in the company to take decisions for their human resource management (Badu 2020). For example, in the formation stage, the hiring and recruiting are usually higher in number than the maturity stage. In the maturity stage, the HR managers need to focus on the aspects like retention and skills improvement of their employees. Other than that, the organisational policies for managing the human resources also tend to change according to the organisational life cycle stages.

According to the resource-based theory, the firm’s success in the international or local markets rests on the “distinctive competence”. This is the part of the organisation that makes it stand apart from their competitors. This competency in influenced by the resources of the organisation. The way the company uses its internal resources casts impact on their success. The management of the organisation must try to establish a balance between the firms; competency and the eternal opportunities. According to Basias (2018), human resource is a strong component that adds value to the internal capabilities of a firm. An employee of a firm is a rare resource that the organisation must explore. Therefore, the resource-based theory can be applied to the case of the valuable resource like Human resource. The HR managers need to train their employees in a way that would contribute to the distinctive competency to get competitive advantages.

Literature review

The strategic aspects of contingency have been discussed as the part of the strategic contingency theory. The leaders have a crucial role in managing the challenges of the human resources. The contingency is the need of the take strategic approach to create effect on other subunits of the organisation. The organisations are the collection of department and functions that needs to work together to cope with the challenges or uncertainties. The contingency theory states that it is the responsibility of the leaders to focus on the deemphasizing of personality. The problem solving is at the base of the leadership. Therefore, the HR can have effective outcomes in the organisation through analysing the problems and solving it.

According to Gómez et al. (2020), human capital is the individual or group dispositions that is presented through skills or the source of knowledge. The knowledge and skills reflect the experience and education of an individual that helps in capitalising the persons potential. The human capital theory fits the purpose of the human resource importance n an organisation. The theory states that people are a valuable asset to the organisation. They are irreplaceable and rare. The companies working in different sectors must try to invest in their human resource as that is the best investment they can do for their overall success.

The study of Sheridan et al. (2021), suggests that an effective human resource department can be useful in managing the human capitals of business and provide positive outcomes through it. the HR department or the mangers have more than one responsibility that provide the work environment and cultural support to the employees. The management of the employee aspects to provide satisfaction and employee engagement are related to the HR roles in the company. The most crucial roles of human resource are explained below-

Talent management is the searching, recruitment and training the right kind of talent that is necessary for a firm’s operations. The talent management team in an organisation covers a lot of aspects in itself. According to Havaei et al. (2021), the talent acquisition in the human resource field is the base of effective company workforce development. A company that uses its strategic objective to recruit the employees have a significant chance of success in their business. The talent management is an umbrella term that includes- job posting, job onboards, employee sourcing, making final selection in the hiring process. In this context, Scanlan and Still (2019) stated that the talent management is not merely the part of effective human resource management, it also in work in developing the company culture and their productivity competencies. The employees would not fit the purpose of the organisation if they do not possess the talent that the company needs.

The employee relations are influenced by the talent management of the firm. The HR practitioners involve in the talent management task have to study the employee engagement, job satisfaction and organisational culture. The talent or new employees that are hired the workforce that is organised for specific job role. The talent management team in an organisation also have their roles in employee relations and trade union management. On the other hand, Follmer and Jones (2018), stated that workforce planning team comes in to action to manage the employee’s issues. The important areas of HR in this aspect are retention efforts, succession planning and managing laid offs.

Research methodology

The training and development plans of an organisation are associated with the personal and professional improvement of the workforce. The HR has the role of organising these training for the employees in the company. The internal training is one of the major motivators for the employees. According to Johnson, Park and Chaudhuri (2020), employees feel heard and satisfied if the organisation provides learning opportunities. The HR needs to develop the training and developmental plans according to the role of the employees and the changed role of the people working in that organisation. The instructional programs have a direct impact on the success of a business. The employee training programs are these instructional aspects that the HR or the trainers provide to the employees. Other than that, the training and developmental program of an organisation provides insights to the employees about what their responsibilities are and what skills would help them to fulfil these responsibilities. This contributes in improved performance and a better mental satisfaction of the employees.

Compensation and benefits are the part of the performance management in an organisation. This is one of the major responsibilities of the HR that they study on the competencies if the employees and decide the compensation that is fair for an employee. As suggested by the study of Badu et al. (2020), Raviola the pay practices of the competitors are also been discussed and analysed by the HR professional to decide the compensation or payroll of the company. The compensation structure of a company contributes in the employee satisfaction. The HR can negotiate with employee regarding their expected salaries and the befits that they want. The benefit plans are one of the major attractions for the new employees to apply for an organisation. Again, the benefits are the reason that the employees contribute higher than they are expected. Therefore, this also develops a positive preplace culture where the employees are more engaged and active. Overall, the HR has the role of developing the compensation and benefit structures that are attractive and puts the company in better position for attracting and retaining the new talents.

The compliance to the regulation and policies are the important job role for the HR. The context and scope or the employment and labour laws can be complicated. It is the role of the HR to manage these complications and let the employees know the way to manage their issues. The labour and employee relations laws are built to help the employees work in the hazardous conditions. The study of Raviola et al. (2019), stated that fair labour law standards are different in different countries, but they all have the sole objective of making the workplace ethical, transparent and fair. The HR managers are important as they keep the organisation trouble free from the law jurisdictions of state, federal and local governments.

HR are the developers of the workplace policies, code of conducts and the regulations of employee behaviour. The control and monitoring are the part of the HR job roles. Therefore, they have to develop the codes of conduct that will complement the ethics and values of the organisation. The HR plays an important role in monitoring the behavioural aspects of the employees within the workplace context. The decision making of the HR are done on the basis of the day to day problems in the organisation. The study of St-Hilaire, Gilbert and Brun (2019) states that HR needs to develop their policies on the basis of organisational purpose or objective in order to retain the human resource of the company.

Data analysis

The occupational and safety measures are concern for the employees in every sector. The organisational management wants to provide the safe and secure workplace to the employees. The departments in an organisation work integrally to develop safe environment for work. The HR are responsible for organising the safety trainings for their employees so that they employees would know how they can resolve the important issues of safety for their employees. For example, the organisations in the industry like airline, the employees might face physical injury hazards. The HR needs to arrange the training for the employees where they can understand the process through which the hazards can be removed effectively.

The concepts of mental health include the idea of emotional, social and phycological wellbeing. According to the report of WHO, there are more thar 264 million people all over the world who are going through the mental health issue like depression that is actually reducing their power for productivity. Many of the people suffering from the mental health issues are diagnosed with depression, anxiety and stress issues. The organisation work environment contributes in the mental wellbeing of the employees. There is no doubt in the fact that the employers are expecting more from their employees now a days. With extended technological improves and enhanced competitive markets, the workforces are facing constant pressure from the management to excel their productions. This workload is to be managed by the employee and the employers at the same time. The negative workplace environment I actually the source of reduced employee productivity. According to Fenech, Baguant and Ivanov (2019) when unemployment is one of the major factors in mental health issues, workplace pressure or negative environment can be placed to be a major influencer in the mental health problems of the employees as well.

The impact of the work-related mental issues could b deep rooted in the employment policies and organisation structures. According to Gómez et al. (2020), unsupportive organisational practices can cause the mental health issues in the employees. Some of the risk that mental health in workplace might include are- ineffective safety and health policies, poor management decisions and communication, limited control over work area, lack of flexibility in work hours and unorganised task objectives.

The workplace safety is one of the major concerns for the employees working in an organisation. Specifically, in the industries where the workplace hazards are more prominent, the employers need to work with the safety policy development effectively to get a positive outcome in their safety measures. The workplace security is another important part of the mental wellbeing of employees (Hamouche 2020). In the industry where the employees are given adequate safety and security about their job, the employees perform well., the mental peace is maintained among the employees if they get to know that their jobs are not fluctuating and the employers are listening to their safety needs. The safety policies are therefore, instrumental in managing the issues of employee mental health.

The workplace is a complicated organisation where more than one functions are working together. The leaders of an organisation need to understand that the employees have an expectation from them regarding their workplace environmental needs. The employees perform better in the structure where they are well informed and supported by the superiors. Mental health if the employees were boosted if they know what to do, how to do and whom to go for support. The leaders need to pay attention ate the bigger picture and develop the support system for their employees accordingly. The general feeling and complaints of the employees are to be heard by the management and their issues are to be resolved with effective support (Goetzel et al. 2018). This is the reason that the psycho-social health of the organisation is linked with leadership in an organisation. Employee who are not supported by their leaders are usually more irritated, puzzled and nervous while performing a task. Therefore, it is necessary to have the supportive management to avoid the mental stress of the employees.

Study findings

The growth and developmental scopes in career are one of the reasons of the employee retention; this also contributes in the employee’s mental heal aspects within the organisation. The companies that have their promotional plans on point have greater prospect of attracting the talents. Employees feel satisfied and wants to work for the organisation when they get chance to improve their skills within the company (Giorgi et al. 2020). This indicates that the employee who are effectively in the growth process are mentally more satisfied and have less anxiety issues in workplace. People feel laid back and anxious when they do not get ample scope for their career development.

The work life balance is one of the major issues emerging in day to day workplaces. According to Brouwers et al. (2020), most of the people in workplace culture suffer from the lack of work life balance. After the pandemic strike and the remote workplace model are adopted by the employers, the work life balance maintenance become all the more challenging for the employees. Lack of rest, and personal time is causing depression and other mental health issues among the employees working in different sectors. Prioritizing the work over all other personal needs might not help the employees all the time. This is the reason that they are finding it difficult to enjoy their work and maintain their mental health.

The employees need to have some autonomy while making decisions for their performance. The strict organisational policies are one medium of monitoring and maintaining the work flow. But at the same time, constant lack of involvement in the organisational decisions might cause aloofness in the employees. This will contribute in having the workplace culture that is toxic and against the employee’s mental health. It is important for the employers to work increase the involvement of the employees in their work process and provide them certain autonomy in their area of work. This will contribute in greater trust building and lesser work influential issues (Morrish 2019).

The toxic organisational culture can impact the mental health of ethe employees. Most of the employees spent the highest amount of time in the office during the work hours. The lack of trust, care and honesty in the workplace could cause metal pressure in employees. This can lead to the sense of insecurity among the employees.

The flexibility in workplace practices and working hours can contribute in positive mind set for the employees. The challenging workplace environment usually have lower amount of flexibility for the employees. As shown in the study of Azizi et al. (2021), the flexibility in the workplace motivates the employees to perform well and reduces the stress of completing tasks in short span. The stress of work-related issues is higher in the workplaces that are less flexible in their approach. Therefore, this can be said that the workplace flexibility contributes in employee satisfaction and mental health improvement in the work environment.

The impact of human resource managers in the mental health management in undeniable. The above discussion shows that an organisation needs to work with their workforce effectively in order to gain success in log run. The employees re the powerful asset of the organisation that would need support and motivation. The workplace security is another important part of the mental wellbeing of employees. In the industry where the employees are given adequate safety and security about their job, the employees perform well., the mental peace is maintained among the employees if they get to know that their jobs are not fluctuating and the employers are listening to their safety needs. The compensation structure of a company contributes in the employee satisfaction. The HR can negotiate with employee regarding their expected salaries and the befits that they want (Dimoff and Kelloway 2019). The benefit plans are one of the major attractions for the new employees to apply for an organisation. Again, the benefits are the reason that the employees contribute higher than they are expected. Therefore, this also develops a positive preplace culture where the employees are more engaged and active.

The purpose of the study considers the area of employee mental wellbeing and the employee satisfaction process in connection with the HR roles. According to the research, it is seen that employee engagement and the employee satisfaction are directly proportional to each other. However, when the employee engagement is increased then the hospitality industry needs to understand that the employee satisfaction is increased in atht context (Dirani et al. 2020). All these contributes in the mental health improvement of the employees.

The literature reviews confirm that the HR has a diverse and important role to play in the employee management. The existing studies shows that there is a direct connection between the employee mental wellbeing and the HR responsibilities within the company. While the human resource is influenced by the work process and possibilities of career development within an organisation, it is the part of HRM to develop these policies and provide the environment to the employees to prosper and be satisfied with the opportunities they get within the company. The mental health of employees can impact the workplace behaviours and performances of the employees to a higher extend.

The research methodology is the detailed description of the techniques of how the research work is done. According to Basias and Pollalis (2018), selecting appropriate research methods is one of the major requirements in a research work. This study has been done using the primary quantitative research method that suits the need of the research objective. The researcher has based the selection of research techniques on the study aims and objectives.

The primary quantitative study has been done on the basis of positivism philosophy and deductive approach. The case study of Malaysian Airlines Berhad has been selected for this study. The researcher has used the survey strategy to understand the mental health and HR management connection in Malaysian Airlines Berhad. The exploratory design has been applied in the study so that the researcher can explore the role of HR in managing the mental health of the organisational chosen.

The research philosophy is the behavioural approach towards the research work done. The researcher has used the research techniques and methods on the basis of the positivism philosophy. The scientific observations and factual belief systems are used in the positivism philosophy (Djafar et al. 2021). The study objectives have been applied and analysed on the basis of this philosophy.

The reason for choosing the positivism philosophy is that the researcher wanted to complete the study on the basis of the factual incidents. The case study of an airline organisation has been taken in order to observe the impact of HR on the mental wellbeing of the employees. Hence, this approach has provided the researcher to make scientific decisions on the quantifiable data. The positivism philosophy was necessary for the study as the primary research with the quantitative data was necessary for reaching the findings. The positivism philosophy compliments all other choices and options for the study.

The deductive approach that has been selected by the researcher for this study is deductive approach. In the deductive approach as general theory is deducted and the more specific cases are examined. The testing of the theory is done through the deductive approach and this is the appropriate approach for the study.

The deductive approach is about driving the direction of the research from top to bottom. The researcher has taken the general theory of the role of HR in managing the mental health of the employees. The theoretical applications have been done in order to decipher the influence. Later, the researcher has used the deductive method to analyse the primary data collected from the employees and apply it in the case of the Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

The research design selected for this study is exploratory research designs, were the researcher has explored the different role and impact that the HR managers has on the management of mental health of employees. Exploratory approach is justified and appropriate for this study.

There is the need for exploring the possibilities of what the Human resource professionals can contribute in the mental health maintenance of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

The research strategy used for this study is survey strategy. Among the other research strategy like action research, case study and interview, the survey is the most effective way for getting the detailed information in the primary research. The survey has been done on the case of Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

The survey strategy was selected for this study so that quantitative primary data could be collected from the employees of the company. The survey is the process of collecting data in a more systematic and detailed way. Hence, the researcher was able to collect a huge amount of data for the study objective through this process. the sample size was greater than that can be used in interviews. Selecting survey over other strategies has also saved time for the researcher to analyse the data effectively. Therefore, the survey research strategy is appropriate and justified for this study.

The sampling technique used for this study is random simple sampling. The organisation was selected for the study and therefore, random 100 employees from the company was selected as sample to gain the study objectives. The samples were sent the consent forms and the survey questionnaire through email. The next step in the study was to collect the survey answers through emailing. The close ended questions were responded by the participants. The simple random sampling is effective as it creates the unbiased opportunity of engaging all types of people from the target population (Fryer et al. 2018).

Primary data was collected for this study as the researcher wanted to register the first-hand experience of the people involved in the case company. The data was collected through the online method, using the email as tool. The questionnaire was built for the survey and responses of the participants was collected through this question.

The study objective was a case specific. In order to understand the impact of HR management on maintaining the mental health of the employees, the researcher needed to have the recent, valid and first-hand data. The primary data was fulfilling all of these categories for that reason. Hence, the primary data was collected using the survey tool.

The data analysis technique selected for this study was quantitative data analysis technique. The researcher has used the primary data to analyse it in qualitative process through the SPSS tool.

The reason for choosing the quantitative data was that it provided more clarity and direct approach for the study objectives. The quantitative data are the numerical data that is instrumental in gathering a more organised data set. The researcher has used the 100 employees’ responses in order to understand what HR can do to manage the employee mental health.

The ethical aspects in research work are validation of fair and effective research outcomes. The primary research method has been adopted in this status that has the quantitative approach (Gupta and Thakkar, 2018). The first thing that has been done is gathering the consent of the participants. The researcher has sent request to the Malaysian Airlines authority for accessing their employees for this study. After getting the access, the researcher has sent consent email to each of the participants. The study was conducted only with the employees who were ready to participate in it. The next stage was to inform the participants about the study. the participants have the right to information about what they are participating in what are strategies for the survey. A detailed document about the study objectives and the usage of data was sent to the participants. The researcher has made sure that the data security and anonymity for the research has been maintained. The participants were free to exit the survey whenever they want to. The data collected for the academic purposes was only used for this study and no commercial usage of the data was there.

The study relevance was effectively followed as the secondary resources used for this study was collected from recent and valid resources. The researcher has cited all these secondary resources with valid citation process. hence, this can be concluded that the study has been done through ethical, fair and valid way. 

The accessibility issues with this study concerns with the time restrictions and inaccessibility to some of the research materials. The time was restricted for completing the project. Hence, the researcher has to cut shirt the time for research and collecting secondary resources. The study findings have been reached with maximum usage of the effective resources that was possible within the timeframe. Next, the researcher found it difficult to get access to some online journals as they needed subscription.

The methodology chapter is providing all the necessary information about the techniques and methods used for this study. The researcher has discussed about the primary quantitative approach that has been used to finish the study. The methods used for the study compliments each other to have a valid and strong outcome. Therefore, this can be concluded that the selected research methods were effective for the study is many levels.

Figure 1: Gender

Demographic details are important to understand the specifications of the population and evaluate if the study has incorporated varied and study specific participants. The above figure shows that the male and female both has participated in the survey. Most of the employees participating in the study were female. 71% of the population are female while only 29% of them are male.Age

Figure 2: Age

Another demographic aspect is the age group that has participated in this study. The researcher has categorised the age group between 20-30 years, 31-40 years and people above 40 years. The age group 20-30 years have the highest participation rate, almost 42% in this study. the rest two category have 33% and 25% respectively.  

Year of Experience

Figure 3: Year of Experience

Year of experience is a necessary parameter in survey as the diversity in year of experience contributes in understanding the population. In the Malaysia Airline Berhad participants people having the work experience of more than 1 year to 3 years of range were in highest percentage. The rest two categories were people working for less than 6 months, more than one year and more than 3 years.Yearly Income

Figure 4: Yearly Income

The income range of the people are related to job satisfaction and compensation aspects. The most prominent group of participants in the survey has the income between £20,001 and £25,000. The rest of the participants have the income range of £10,000- £15,000, £15,001 to £20,000 and £25,001 and above. Most of the employees in the Malaysian Airline Berhad get paid well.

Independent Variables: Factors influence by HRM practicesVariable Analysis

Figure 5: Selecting the right talent and recruiting the effective workforce is necessary for organisational success

The factors influencing HR practices in an organisation has been analysed with the help of the definitive variable based questions in the survey. While determining the relation between seleceting right talent and recruiting the employees and organisational success, most of the employees gave their response in favour of it. according to thye survey 45% of the population agreed and 31% of the population strongly agreed that HR has their impactful role in managing the type of workforce as they recruit the employees.Effective talent management develops positive workplace environment with right people at place

Figure 6: Effective talent management develops positive workplace environment with right people at place

Again, 53% of the participants agreed that effective talent management has a role in developing the positive workplace environment. The HR can play their crucial role in selecting the right talent for the company and make the work process easier for the teams in Malaysia Airline. According to the study of Havaei et al. (2021), talent acquisition is one of the primary tasks of the HR that contributes in workplace environment, effective work culture and employee’s satisfaction. The employees feel more engagement and belonged in the workplace set up that has employee base of organisational fit. The employees can get good support from their colleagues of they have the necessary talent and understanding. Hence, HR role of recruitment and talent acquisition contributes in employee’s performance and well being as wellMalaysia Airlines Berhad training and development

Figure 7: Malaysia Airlines Berhad training and development programs are significantly designed

As seen in figure 7, 43% of the participants agreed and 29% of the participants strongly agreed that Malaysian Airline has developed their training and development procedures effectively. On the other hand, 8% of the participants are not satisfied with the employee training program. As majority of the employees have given their responses in favour of training and development program efficiency of Malaysia Airlines, the disagreed responses could be neglected.

 Training and development programs

Figure 8: Training and development programs of the Malaysia Airlines Berhad contributes in employee satisfaction and career advancement

The employee satisfaction and career advancements are related training and development which is the part of the HR policies. According to Johnson, Park and Chaudhuri (2020), the employees are more engaged if they have a chance for learn more and make advancement in their career. Hence, the survey results and the literature review indicate towards the same findings. Compensation and benefits plans are one of the major

Figure 9: Compensation and benefits plans are one of the major attractions for working in Malaysia Airlines BerhadThe benefits and rewards motivate the employees to contribute more in work structure and be satisfied

Figure 10: The benefits and rewards motivate the employees to contribute more in work structure and be satisfied

Figure 9 and 10 are related to the structure and importance of compensation and benefit plans in the HR roles. The 48% of the employees believe that the compensation structure of the Malaysian Airline work as a motivational factor for their work. The next graph represented that the benefits and rewards of the company increases the employee satisfaction aspects. These findings are in line with the literature review part which also indicates that people working with good compensation structure are more motivated and satisfied. This contributes in good mental health of the employees. HR has crucial role in managing workplace challenges through their policies.

Figure 11: HR has crucial role in managing workplace challenges through their policies.

Workplace policies keeps the challenges in check and resolves employees’ issues

Figure 12: Workplace policies keeps the challenges in check and resolves employees’ issues

The HR are the regulators in the organisational policies and therefore, the influence of these policies is to be evaluated. The study shows that 41% of the participants agreed and 33% of them strongly agreed that HR can play a crucial role in managing the workplace policies (figure 11). Similarly, the study of St-Hilaire, Gilbert and Brun (2019) stated that the HR managers need to work in favour of employee satisfaction. These policies resolve the issues in employee satisfaction and makes the process of working smooth for them. the safety and security that the HR policies provide to the employees actually contribute in their mental satisfaction in the workplace.

Independent Variables: Factors influencing employee mental health in workplaceAdequate Safety policies developed by HR contributes in employee trust and satisfaction.

Figure 13: Adequate Safety policies developed by HR contributes in employee trust and satisfaction.

According to figure 13, 45% of the employees agree and 24% of them strongly agreed to the fact that adequate safety policies can contribute in increasing the employee trust and satisfaction.The secure workplace contributes positively in mental health of the employees

Figure 14: The secure workplace contributes positively in mental health of the employees

While asked about the connection between secure workplace and employee mental health, 46% of the population agreed that secure workplace increases their mental health efficacies. The study in the literature review also suggested that the workplace security fulfils the need hierarchy elements for the employees. Therefore, the primary results of the study complement the existing empirical study on this aspect of HR role and mental health.The unsupportive management system can reduce employee’s performance and increase workplace stress

Figure 15: The unsupportive management system can reduce employee’s performance and increase workplace stress

45% of the participants agreed and 30% of the employees strongly agreed that the non- supportive workplace reduces employee performance. The workplace stress in also increased when the employees are not getting the necessary information and support from the management.Informed and organized support system in organisation contributes in positive mental health of the employees

Figure 16: Informed and organized support system in organisation contributes in positive mental health of the employees

The study of Goetzel et al. (2018) suggested that employees feel satisfied and positive when their problems are resolved and their voice is heard. This statement is supported by the primary study results in this part. Almost 75% of the participant agreed or strongly agreed that supportive HR system contributes in mental health of the employees.

The growth and development scopes that HR

Figure 17: The growth and development scopes that HR designs for the employees helps in their personal and professional growths. Employees who are in the growth process

Figure 18: Employees who are in the growth process of the company are mentally satisfied and happies in workplace

Figure 17, and 18 shows that the employees of the Malaysian Airline Berhad gives importance to their career growth. As majority of the participants agreed that the career growth process in an organisation contributes in positive mind set. The study Follmer and Jones (2018) suggested the same in line of this finding.

Most of the employees in Malaysia Airlines

Figure 19: Most of the employees in Malaysia Airlines Berhad are suffering to maintain their work life balance due to extended work- timesWork life disbalance could cause stress and absenteeism among the employees

Figure 20: Work life disbalance could cause stress and absenteeism among the employees

Participants of this study provided their opinion on how the work life balance could influence their mental health. According to figure 19 and 20, employees can feel stressed if their work life balance is not maintained. The stress can lead to the issues like absenteeism, poor performance, health issues and burn out (Hamouche 2020).

The employee engagement through HR interventions can increase employee involvement

Figure 21: The employee engagement through HR interventions can increase employee involvement

Toxic organisational culture is harmful for the mental health of the employees

Figure 22: Toxic organisational culture is harmful for the mental health of the employees

The last two figures- 21 and 22 is about the toxic workplace and their impact on employee performance and mental health in the Malaysian Airline Birhad. The study results show that the toxic workplace contributes in negative impact on the employee’s mental health. This finding is backed up by the empirical study finding in the literature review part.

Flexibility in work environment reduces employees stress and increases employee retention rate.

Figure 23: Flexibility in work environment reduces employees stress and increases employee retention rate.

Positive workplace and flexible work approach contribute in employee satisfaction

Figure 24: Positive workplace and flexible work approach contribute in employee satisfaction

Both primary and secondary data shows that the positive workplace culture is instrumental in employee satisfaction. The employee satisfaction is related to the mental health. A satisfied employee can perform with all potential as there are lesser dissatisfaction contributing in the mental health of the employee. 42% of the participants agreed and 33% of the participants strongly agreed that the flexible work culture could contribute in their work place satisfaction in the Malaysia Airline.

 HR has a direct impact on managing

Figure 25: HR has a direct impact on managing the positive mental health of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad

Based on all the above study results and figure 25, this can be stated that the HR management has a direct impact on the positive mindset development of the employees in the organisation. The crucial factors that the HR can manage impacts the performance of the employees. At the same time, these contexts can also influence how the employees are performing and feeling in the workplace environment. The HR policies and practices increases the convenience and mental strength of the employees. The safety and security they feel in a structured and well-developed workplace contributes in positive impact on their mindset. The work life balance is maintained and they feel motivated to work without any extra pressure. Hence, it is evident in this primary data finding that the HR has their impactful role in managing the mental health of the employees.

Correlations

Tal_Mgt

trn_dev

Com_Ben

wrk_pol

saf_pol

non_Mgt

Grw_Dev

wrk_blc

org_cul

wrk_env

Tal_Mgt

Pearson Correlation

1

.603**

.656**

.734**

.667**

.474**

.620**

.530**

.612**

.575**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

trn_dev

Pearson Correlation

.603**

1

.842**

.778**

.623**

.507**

.660**

.658**

.654**

.588**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Com_Ben

Pearson Correlation

.656**

.842**

1

.790**

.601**

.458**

.599**

.660**

.655**

.562**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

wrk_pol

Pearson Correlation

.734**

.778**

.790**

1

.664**

.577**

.618**

.625**

.644**

.600**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

saf_pol

Pearson Correlation

.667**

.623**

.601**

.664**

1

.665**

.753**

.679**

.636**

.672**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

non_Mgt

Pearson Correlation

.474**

.507**

.458**

.577**

.665**

1

.690**

.558**

.574**

.589**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Grw_Dev

Pearson Correlation

.620**

.660**

.599**

.618**

.753**

.690**

1

.739**

.708**

.672**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

wrk_blc

Pearson Correlation

.530**

.658**

.660**

.625**

.679**

.558**

.739**

1

.808**

.691**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

org_cul

Pearson Correlation

.612**

.654**

.655**

.644**

.636**

.574**

.708**

.808**

1

.840**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

wrk_env

Pearson Correlation

.575**

.588**

.562**

.600**

.672**

.589**

.672**

.691**

.840**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 1: Correlation table

The correlation analysis is done in order to determine how strongly the variables are related to each other. The correlation values have the range between +1 to -1. The positive correlation values, i.e. +1 to 0 indicates the positive correlation and negative correlation value, i.e. 0 to -1 indicates the negative correlation between the variables. The above correlation table shows the correlation between different independent variables that has been emerged in the primary data sets. The study shows that all the variables has positive correlation with each other. The strongest correlation exists between compensation and benefits and training and development in the organisation. The correlation value is .842, which is almost 1 in valuation. This correlation value came out strong as the training and development is related to the employee performance. The knowledge and skills development through the training enables the individual employees to overcome their work-related issues and lack of skills. Hence, their performance could be enhanced through the trainings. The benefits and compensations will be increased if the employees have greater skills and competencies. Hence, the correlation is established.

The other variables are also related to each other in positive way. Other strong correlations established in the data analysis are- correlation between workplace policies and talent management, workplace policies and training and development. The correlations analysis shows that the workplace policies have stronger correlation with most of the HR roles and mental health factors. the HR can improve their policy development to influence all these important aspects.

H0: HR has no impact on the mental health aspects of the employees.

H1: HR has a direct impact on the mental health aspects of employees.

Variables Entered/Removeda

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

1

wrk_env, Com_Ben, non_Mgt, Tal_Mgt, wrk_blc, saf_pol, Grw_Dev, wrk_pol, trn_dev, org_culb

.

Enter

a. Dependent Variable: HR has a direct impact on managing the positive mental health of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

b. All requested variables entered.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

1

.707a

.500

.444

.758

.500

8.900

10

89

.000

a. Predictors: (Constant), wrk_env, Com_Ben, non_Mgt, Tal_Mgt, wrk_blc, saf_pol, Grw_Dev, wrk_pol, trn_dev, org_cul

Table 2: Model summary

The model summary shows that the gap between adjusted R square and R square in this study is negligible. Hence, the regression is model fit for the study. The independent variables used in this study are apt and fit for the study.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

51.095

10

5.109

8.900

.000b

Residual

51.095

89

.574

Total

102.190

99

a. Dependent Variable: HR has a direct impact on managing the positive mental health of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

b. Predictors: (Constant), wrk_env, Com_Ben, non_Mgt, Tal_Mgt, wrk_blc, saf_pol, Grw_Dev, wrk_pol, trn_dev, org_cul

Table 3: Anova Test

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

95.0% Confidence Interval for B

B

Std. Error

Beta

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1

(Constant)

.963

.409

2.353

.021

.150

1.776

Tal_Mgt

-.172

.142

-.152

-1.209

.230

-.453

.110

trn_dev

.447

.164

.427

2.730

.008

.122

.772

Com_Ben

-.207

.170

-.194

-1.222

.225

-.544

.130

wrk_pol

.170

.166

.157

1.021

.310

-.161

.501

saf_pol

.337

.139

.333

2.415

.018

.060

.614

non_Mgt

.023

.114

.023

.203

.840

-.204

.251

Grw_Dev

-.162

.168

-.140

-.965

.337

-.495

.171

wrk_blc

-.028

.170

-.025

-.168

.867

-.366

.309

org_cul

.511

.205

.446

2.493

.015

.104

.918

wrk_env

-.154

.169

-.135

-.910

.365

-.489

.182

a. Dependent Variable: HR has a direct impact on managing the positive mental health of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

Table 4: Coefficient table

Null Hypothesis

P value

Status (95% confidence level)

HR has no impact on the mental health aspects of the employees

0.000

Rejected

As seen in the table the p value of the Anova test is 0.000 that is lesser than 0.05 which signifies that the negative hypothesis is rejected. The positive hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, it is proven thar HR has their role in managing mental health of the employees.

The data analysis findings could be summarized by saying that the HR roles in the organisational context are changing. The employees are facing issues in managing their mental health with increasing expectations of the employers and limited time scopes. The stress could cause long term health and work issues. The HR policies has direct influence on how the employees can behave in positive way to manage the mental health of the employees. HR policies and strategies can help the employees to overcome their workplace challenges, barriers in performance and develop the environment that would help them to get well- maintained mental health.

Conclusion

This can be concluded from the study findings that the HR in an organisation has their crucial role in managing the mental health of the employees. Mental health is one of the alerting issues that is emerging in the human resource management aspects. The unsatisfied workforce can cause heavy losses to the company. Malaysian Airline Berhad is the famous airline company that ahs a skilled and huge employee’s base. The human resources of the company are a great asset for its operations and functionality. This study suggests that the employees of the organisation thinks that the HR practices of the company ahs direct impact on their performance and productivity. There are various factors that influence the HR roles in the organisation. According o this study positive workplace environment and flexibility provided by the management accelerates the employee retention rate in the company. Ata the same time, the company needs to work with the employee engagement and employee satisfaction sects to maintain good mental health of the employees. In the line of secondary and primary researches, this fact is established that the airlines need to work with the employee expectations in order to increase the overall productivity. The role of HR is vast in its scope as through this department of the airline, the performance management, reward and recognition, trainings and workplace behavioural policies are adopted and communicated. The HR therefore, plays the most important role in employee mental health management.

Objective 1: To understand the concepts of mental health in workplace and human resource management

The concepts of the mental health and the HR policies and practices has been discussed in the literature review part of the study. the crucial terms and definitions of the mental health, human resource and its role has been analysed in the 2.2 and 2.5 part. The study shows that the human resource management is the process of managing the employees of the organisation to get the most effective outcomes towards the company objectives. The HRM or the human resource management theories has been included in the 2.3 part to get the theoretical perspective and a clear outlook to the whole research work. The mental health concepts are related to employee stress reduction, work life balance and sound mental decision-making condition. These discussions will develop the primary ideas of the readers regarding the concept of HRM and mental health in workplace.

Objective 2: To analyse the factors contributing in mental health issues in Malaysian airlines Berhad.

This objective of the study is achieved through the primary research. The employees of the organisation have been asked with a number of questions related to the mental health issues in the organisation. The 4.2 part of the Findings chapter has the results of the study. These qualitative data results support the literature review where the important factors of mental health were analysed in the 2.6 part. The study confirms that the HR policies and practices can help the employees maintain and effective mental health. Huge amount of time in an employee daily routine is spent in the office works. Hence, taking care of the employee mental health is necessary to increase retention, performance and satisfaction level of the employees.

Objective 3: To examine the role of Human resource management in managing the mental health of the employees in Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

The role of human resource in managing the employee mental health has been discussed in the 2.7 as well as in the findings part. The findings show that the employees of the organisation think that the HR can motivate them to perform in better way if they take care of the positive workplace culture and environment. It is the responsibility of the HR department to understand the needs of the employees who are working in the organisation. These needs could include the need for job security, appreciation, flexibility in work timing and decision making, appreciating the performance and helping to maintain work life balance. The HR policies developed by the human resource of the Malaysia Airlines Berhad needs to be directed to fulfil these objectives in mental health wellness of the employees.

Objective 4: To recommend effective solution to the mental health issues of the employees in the Malaysian Airlines Berhad.

The recommendations are derived from the findings of the study. The appropriate recommendation for the Malaysia Airline Berhad has been delivered at the 5.3 part in the conclusion chapter.

The organisation needs to arrange more conferences and training sessions regarding the mental wellness awareness. The findings suggest that many employees lack in attaining the mental health results as they are unaware of how they can manage their work pressure. Mere working on the organisational environment would not be sufficient if the employees themselves do not try to manage their workloads. The COVID 19 situation has created the ambiance of uncertainty that has impacted the mental health levels of the airline industry employees. Therefore, the Malaysia Airline Berhad HR management should be concentrating on increasing employee safety and confidence in new work structure.

HR can deliver the policies that models the organisational behaviour for the employees of different level. The practice of prioritising the self- care and mental health aspects are to be implemented. The HR needs to monitor that their mental health policies are actually been implemented and evaluated regularly. These managers should take care of the well being of team and practice empathy in the company. Team meeting regarding the balancing of work pressure and creating innovative work process needs to be encouraged. The HR can also arrange some refreshing session once in a week for the employees where they can show their talents in things other than work.

The airline should offer more flexible work culture and inclusive management practices. The employees need to have a sense of belongingness. The HR can work on employing and recreating the work force that is proactive. The inclusive flexibility will influence the workforce to be more engaging and stay long term with the company.

The limitations of the study are that it has a limited number of samples involved. The participants are all from one company as this study is case study specific. The generalizability of this study is narrow. Other than that, the online survey and study created limitations for access the data.

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