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Types of Human Resource Practices

Discuss about the International Differences in Adoption and Impact of Information.

The different four kinds of Human Resource practices are termed as the bureaucratic, professional, market and flexibility package. All these practices are connected to organisational structures. These human resource practices make a difference in the human resource Strategies and goals (Renckly, 2011). The key 4 HR practices are:

HR recruitment and selection practices are usually as per the goals and Mission of the organisation and the workplace culture. Like the employees that identify the worth of workplace diversity use the recruitment practices which are focused on attracting a diverse set of applicants. The recruitment practices lay down recruitment apps and processes like sponsoring the recruitment Fair at various colleges and other Institutions where diversified students can be approached.

Applying flexible work schedules, giving workers with telecommuting alternative and training supervisors so that the signal of workplace pressure can be found and a work life balance can be applied to the business environment. It would include management of scheduling logistics, modification of Technology for remote accessibility and carrying out of training sessions. But these practices generally lead to a result oriented work culture as they provide with higher effectiveness.

Training and development are the practices which involve fresh workers orientation, job skills training, professional growth and leadership training. These activities involved enhancement of workers in the present position and equipment them with experience and talent for Cross functional work that can enhance their work in the business.

The benefits and compensation are generally taken as one thing which provide with a comprehensive picture of how the employers reward the workers. But just looking at the compensation provided with a better image of the HR management practices as the workers’ wages is made up of 70% of the cost of employer for operating. The weather compensation is an internal equitable and outwardly competitive practice.

The demand for skills is a derivative demand: skills demand is reliant on the kinds of goods and services manufactured, and so influenced by a business’ product market strategy, upcoming plans for growth and wider economic circumstances. The future demand for labour and skills will be derived by numerous factors as given below:

  • The economic and political factors: These have huge impact on the kind of profile of goods and services demand and therefore the future skill demand in the place of work. This sector also considered the trade liberalization, globalization and the changing the policies of the government.
  • Corporate strategic choice - one more question which affects the skills required is type of goods and services which will be produced inside the nation on imported from anywhere else in the world and the find and volume of the high value added out sports which need enhance skills to be produced inside the nation. Employers will choose from where they can find out various elements of production procedure.
  • Technical changes- innovation causes the growth of latest goods, services and production procedures coming along with automation of the manufacturing procedures that word highly based on the labour in the past. The speed of Technical changes is growing and it is anticipated that with the KETs (key enabling Technologies), Nano-technologies, biotechnology and nano-electronics there would be changes in the requirement of skills and labour demand.
  • Globalisation and competition   - the profits from ICT Information and Communication Technologies has to be connected with the globalisation and there has been removal of trade barriers among the Nations. Globalisation is one of the key factors which drive the amendments in the global economy and therefore there have been lots of trade barriers removed or lessened, so the businesses have enhance the decision with respect to the location of producing. With the growth of ICT it is highly possible for the goods and services to be manufactured at any place of the globe and can be exported.
  • Demographic changes -one more driver of change in the demand for labour and skills is demographic change. Specifically, and aging population potentially give rise to enhance demand for health and social care goods and services like in medicinal areas application of self Diagnostic tools is also Rising. Similarly other areas also have aging staff and will have to think about the succession planning and the way they can transfer skills and knowledge is to younger generation who will stay with the labour force.
  1. Alignment of Business and HR requirements- The HR strategy has to be aligned with the HR requirements and business goals and has to be understanding about the business and its competitive advantage
  2. Development of HR strategy- the business goals and business knowledge have to be deeply understood along with the potential opportunities and threats with respect to that type and level of human resources needed by the business.
  3. Business performance- business performance is the procedure by which the business objectives and business goals are laid out and managed also the organisation. It acts as a basis for the HR activity and provides is the best way to directly affect business strategy for business success, business repute and its contribution (Bartel et al., 2017).
  4. Type of Business and its structure-The business design consists of its size, shape, structure which is necessary for meeting the business customers’ needs. Therefore the strategic plan has to be created in order to add value to the structure and operation of the organisation
  5. Strategic resources- it involves decisions on the resources strategy that is identification of various critical elements which are required for determining the resources needs, procedures for attracting the right individuals and procedures for accessing and choosing the right individuals.
  6. The Other step for strategic resources would involve the creating a pipeline for importing external talent and aligning it with the HR team along with the reward strategy and compensation so that the new person hired is also a line with the HR objective.
  7. The final step would be to play down the businesses cultural ambitions like describing of new behaviours and working styles and by the skills in the business development so that growth solutions can be provided for delivering the business improvements.

Similar to any other management decisions, the human resources management decisions also include utilizing business resources like time, money, facilities so that the worker productivity or any other desired outcomes are impacted. The cost benefit analysis is a decision making technique which includes carefully thinking about the benefits and the costs that is negative effects of various optional decisions.

  • Restructuring strategies: These involved reducing the staffs by terminating them on attrition or regrouping them to have a better arrangement of jobs organising the working units so that more efficiency can be obtained
  • Training and development strategies: These involve all the trainings to be carried out for new roles or enhancing the existing staff members’ skills by providing them training for the future jobs in the company (Gashi, 2013).
  • Recruitment strategies: These involve recruitment of new members with the capabilities and talent that is needed for future of the business and considering all the options for enhancing job openings and encouragement of suitable applicants.
  • Outsourcing strategies: Utilising of external people or businesses so that a few tasks can be completed, in case the internal staff do not have the required skill set.
  • Collaboration strategies: These include collaborating so that better success can be achieved for dealing with shortage of specific skills like collaborating with the forms so that future leaders are prepared, sharing of the cost of training for workers making the workers visit different organisations so that they can get more Insight and also collaborating with various courses offered by different educational institutions

Recruitment and Selection

The strategic HR plan has to be communicated all over the organization and to the team members, and it has to be ensured that communication includes the manner in which plan is linked with the strategic plan of the company and what amendments are there in the HR management strategies, activities and exercises for supporting the specific strategic plan. There has to be a communication made to the key stakeholders about the impact of plan on each and every staff member along with the time frame of plan to be implemented (Blankenship, 2016). There can be effective implementation by informing the stakeholders regarding the manner in which the business will be different in the future. Taking confirmation from the board of members for my executive director, senior managers on agreement with the strategic HR plan would help in getting everybody's involvement.

Johnson Morgan established organic food places in 2000 producing health items in 15 local outlets of West Metropolitan region. There around 80 staff members of accounts and administration, it supports distribution and marketing. Looking at the case study, the business wants to be the employer of choice in the given area therefore it has to apply different strategies.

  • Since it needs to come up with one more office in Southern Metropolitan area by December 2016 and it has to recruit an assistant manager by 2015 therefore it is suggested that the recruitment for assistant manager is done from internal candidates only. This will encourage the internal candidates and therefore they would also get a chance for career advancement.
  • The business has to make way for promotional opportunities for the people who are working with the organization and as it has so many employees working from year 2000 it has to provide with opportunity to the existing ones to grow. This will build up and enhance the worker loyalty towards organization and also will prove help the business to promote a visible career ladder.
  • It also must explain the strategic plan and goals to its staff members. Given that there are 80 workers, and there has to be a new store opened so more workers can be recruited at the lower level getting a younger generation with the new ideas on board and the previous workers can be promoted so that they can also be shown with a clear career path (Rouwendal, 2012). This will provide the existing workers with a sense of a future with the company.
  • Globalization: Complexity is rising for both firms and persons. At the business level, difficulty enhances with layers upon layers of government rules, in several nations, along with needs from clientele with their own particular arrangements.
  • Demographic shifts: at the present millennial is the biggest generation in the place of work in most nations, and their voices, linked by social media, will gradually changing the workplace culture.
  • Present employees: The existing employees will be moved to the next level or to the new store
  • Employee referrals: The existing staffs will refer their friends and relatives to the Organic Food Company
  • Previous data of applicants: These are the sets of applicants which had applied with the Organic Food Company in the past.
  • Employment agencies: These will help in getting desired candidates at Organic Food Company
  • Campus recruitment: The new staffs and younger generation will be hired from the campus recruitments.

Training and development needs to be provided to the existing staff members so that they do not become bored in the existing positions and since the strategy of the company is to expand in the upcoming 15 to 16 years therefore it has to show the workers with the visible career ladder. Recognition is also one more strategy where the business must engage its staff members and the goals have to be set at the individual and the departmental level. When the goals are set at the business level and employees are rewarded for attaining those goals, a sense of teamwork and encouragement is created for accomplishment of the business objectives. One more strategy that is Highly Effective is the compensation as the staff members like to be part of the organisations which pay them well. The business must involve the benefit packages like Health Insurance, vacations, time off, paid holidays and other such packages which encourage the staff to stay with the business for such a long time. Becoming an employer of choice well need attracting and retaining the best talent and it is not a simple task. This cannot take place overnight therefore for becoming an employer of choice, the leaders of this business have to amend the culture of the organisation and work on the weaknesses of the organisations. Since in the 4 departments, there are 80 staff members, therefore the strategy plan must also include reassessment of the actual number of staff members needed and in case there is under or over employment then it should be taken into consideration.

Work-Life Balance

The legislations to be considered for fulfilling the personal requirements would involve the federal and state and territory laws to be followed along with the industrial awards and agreements. The payment of correct and suitable wages has to be done along with providing the staff members with the payslips. The work related expenses have to be reimbursed to the staff members and a safe working environment has to provide it. Worker compensation insurance has to be there for every staff member and superannuation guarantee has to be paid for the staff members.

For ensuring this there has to be a communication among the departments and with the department heads so that any disagreement can be stated and worked upon. All the key Stakeholders have to be involved in the human resource strategy making process.

Before implementing the above stated strategies like training, promotion, communication and similar strategies, the cost has to be considered for the same. Given that the benefit of this strategy would be sales of 2 million dollars in the year 2015. Another benefit would be expansion of the outlets. when the business will hire or promote one more assistant manager then cost might increase however as per the first benefit analysis it is highly beneficial to promote and encourage the internal staff member so that hire sales can be attained. Other coast will involve recruiting new staff for expansion purpose and still it will add to the profitability and sales of the business so as per the cost benefit analysis this is a beneficial approach.

To fulfil the business plan it will need to acquire land or a place where outlet has to be opened, human resources, technological resources, supplies and Logistics.

The risk management plan for supporting the given human resource strategies will involve defining the rest and then planning out the ways to deal with them. The key risks attached with this would be:

  • Succession planning: there has to be your future of leadership plan in place so that the organisation can look forward to the upcoming change in the leadership. in this HR will have a critical role by measurement of time and money in the leadership pipeline for the future of the organic foods company
  • Insurance and data: The Other risk will be in terms of the compensation and benefits of the staff members and here also HR is responsible for arranging employee compensation and making sure that all the benefits are provided correctly and the legal manner. In case the data is wrong for employees salaries are incorrectly given then the employer is liable for the same.
  • Supply chain risk: since there is an expansion expected therefore there is a risk of supply chain getting too big to manage safely. Therefore there has to be scrutinization and monitoring of relation with the staff members, recruitment and Employment Institutions, engagement with steps to know about any potential problems and making sure that a proper and appropriate suitable workplace is provided at every location of the organic food company.

The runners Paradise and a small clothing design organisation known as Active Leak are looking forward to a merger. Runners Paradise has 35 and the merging organisation has 10 staff members. Active Leak has no time for handling HRM roles therefore there is no strategic plan for the same. For the integration of the two organisations it is important that human resource strategic plan is created.

  • Induction: This is the way toward accepting and inviting representatives of Active Leak, when they first join Runners Paradise. The points are:

- To smoothen the preparatory stages for a superior start up.

- To set up an ideal mentality to the association.

Training and Development

- To acquire viable yield as right on time as would be prudent.  

An officer should lead the induction procedure having adequate data about the organization, and which may incorporate the history, items/administrations, association and administration and so forth. At the level of the office, the capable supervisor ought to carry out the activity. This will give the new representative a positive picture of the organization or association. The director will hand the staff member over to the segment head/administrator for more detail.

  • Industrial relations: The human resource manager can complete an extraordinary arrangement in keeping up industrial peace in the business as he is profoundly connected with different boards of trustees on train, work welfare, wellbeing, grievance, and so forth. He helps in setting out the grievance technique to change the grievances of the workers. He additionally gives bona fide data to the exchange association pioneers and passes on their perspectives on different work issues to the top managers.  
  • Recruitment and selection: An unmistakable strategy on when and how recruitment and choice will be led is essential for the administration, staff and the candidates in light of the potential risks of subjectivity.
  • Remuneration: This capacity is linked to the assurance of satisfactory and even-handed compensation of the workers in the association of their commitment to the authoritative objectives. The work force can be remunerated both as far as money related and additionally non-fiscal prizes. Elements which must be borne at the top of the priority list while settling the compensation of staff are their fundamental needs, necessities of employments, legitimate arrangements with respect to least wages, limit of the association to pay, wage level managed by contenders and so forth. For settling the wage levels, the staff office can make utilization of specific procedures like job evaluation and performance appraisal.
  • Equal employment opportunity and diversity: Equal opportunity approaches may influence all segments of the employment procedure in an association, including recruitment, determination, preparing, advancement, exchange, pay and others like leave and lodging and so on. The method of reasoning for equal opportunity spins around the below aspects:

- Maximizing workers' capability will enhance execution.

- Conformity with the law and other enactment.

- The requirement of a relative work constrain that speaks to the greater part of the society.

  • Runners Paradise has a brand name
  • More of client base for Runners Paradise
  • Additional skills and experience of Active Leak

- Clash of culture among shareholders and top management

- No HRM strategy for Active Leak

- 10 employees stand less against 35 staff members and they might feel de - motivated


- Infrastructure usage and technical advancements can help in business integration and business growth

- Economies of scales

- Clashes of interest among two company’s staffs

- There can be high decline in motivation levels and performance due to changes in leadership

  • Issues that may arise in the organization and their impact on human resources

- Legal issues

- Differences of opinions

-Differences in culture

- Integration challenges

The human resources will need to be identified and reason has to be communicated for the merger to the Employees. There has to be training provided to the most team along with the changes in the leadership. The human resources will also face changes in the corporate culture along with the decision regarding who stays and who goes. There will be a new organisational structure and the key talent would be retained and motivated.

The emerging practices and trends like changes in the location, globalization, liberalization and various other similar factors have impact on the human resources. There are legislative and statutory requirements to be considered for the Merger along with the change in the strategic HR plan. commercial or contains the key rules for assessing the areas like right to be heard, notifications, deadlines, changes and several other things. Since there is every organisation therefore merger must have statutory merger or consolidation. In case of emergency has to be changes brought to the HR strategic plan. The main. is that the number of employees has changed after the Merger and there are changes that a few of the employees are reluctant to change are there are chances that there is lack of communication among the management and the team members therefore it is important that employees are made aware how they have to go about for the change and they are convinced regarding the aim of the change. The changes to be made during the strategy have to be informed to the workers. In the strategic plan, there has to be changes with respect to alignment of the top team and development of the new operating model. The baselines and targets will also change. The new plan has to be made as per the joint ambition and strategic priorities with the understanding regarding the status quo and definition of the desired future.

  • Scope and purpose of the change: The Chosen organisation for the study is Uniqlo. It is one of the key casual wear sellers in Hong Kong. It has many fashion items for males and females. There are various styles for my designs on clothes offered by the brand. It values its people. The HR procedures involved performance management for my training and development, reward management, disciplinary policy and health and safety. All these processes contribute for communicating the business objectives and its dedication to human resources.The goal and scope of change involve changing the rating scale system for performance management
  • Drivers of the change:The key motivators behind these changes that the company applies rating scale for appraising employee performance and it is widely utilised method it is very simple and quick to be utilised. The workers are rated on any attribute or level of performance or attitude.
  • What organisational problems did the change seek to address: There is a need for changing because the rating scale has problem since it is easy to be made, utilise and understood. There are huge issues in utilising the rating scales because ratings are quite subjective. Each of the attribute of job is not equally significant and various attributes are highly significant for one job and not for the other. Ratings can be provided quickly for each attribute or level but it is important that these attributes are valid or useful for each evaluation. So this method has its own limitations and weaknesses.
  • Required resources for the change: For changing the performance appraisal method, it is important that the top management and workers are involved.
  • Who were the relevant managers consulted in the change: How to communicate to the relevant managers:  the relevant managers consulted in the change our team managers and top leaders who give rating to the staff members and are part of performance appraisal procedure. Along with this the team members also need to be consulted because they are the ones who get impressed on the basis of their performance.
  • Barriers to success: The communication with be made through email, regular sessions and training delivered for the performance appraisal procedures to be followed.
  • Contingencies to overcome barriers: The barriers to success will involve the reluctance to change by the management and staff members, inability to apply any other techniques of performance appraisal, since rating is a simple method to be utilised so the top managers or management might be reluctant to use any difficult method. To overcome these barriers it is important that the managers and the staff members are made aware of the weaknesses of the existing method and its limitations are explained along with the name of the change and why the new method would be beneficial and useful.
  • Outcome of organizational change effected: With the changes in the performance appraisal methods, there will be better days of performance appraisal and bone motivation can be expected for the employees along with fair way of appraising.


Bartel, A., Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K. and Correa, R., 2017. International Differences in the Adoption and Impact of New Information Technologies and New HR Practices. Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Blankenship, J., 2016. SCAI's future: The 2016 strategic plan. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 87(2), pp.183-187.

Cuyvers, L., Dhyne, E. and Soeng, R., 2010. The Effects of Internationalisation on Domestic Labour Demand by Skills: Firm-Level Evidence for Belgium. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Gashi, R., 2013. Strategic Human Resources Management: Human Resources or Human Capital. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Mayo, A., 2015. Strategic workforce planning – a vital business activity. Strategic HR Review, 14(5), pp.174-181.

Renckly, R., 2011. Human resources. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series.

Rouwendal, J., 2012. Indirect Effects in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 3(01), pp.1-27.

Strategic Direction, 2008. The human resource craze: human performance improvement and employee engagement. Strategic Direction, 24(8).

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