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Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Discuss about the “Motivation concepts and Models”.

Motivation plays a great role in conducting the activities of the company. Without motivation, it is not possible to enhance the overall productivity level of the workers. It is essential for every company to focus on motivating the employees so that the operations can be conducted in a right direction.  Motivation is considered as a factor which is essential to be considered by the managers so that productivity and profitability level can be enhanced (Hauser, 2014). The concept of motivation is related to enhancing the level of confidence of the employees. The goal and objective of the organization can be accomplished if there is proper motivation given to the employees. Motivation is important for every motivation so that they can conduct the activities in a right manner (Miner, 2015). Therefore, the focus will be given to concepts which are related to the factor of motivation. The discussion will be made on the different theories and models and also practical examples will be stated that will help to explain the concept of motivation.

There are many theories which are related to motivation. Motivation theories should be taken into consideration so that every worker can be motivated towards the activities and also motivation can enhance the satisfaction level of an individual. There are various theories related to motivation like Maslow hierarchy, ERG theory, two-factor theory and many others that will be explained in this paper.

The first theory is "Maslow hierarchy of needs theory". This theory is one of the important theories of motivation. This theory is introduced by Abraham Maslow in 1940s and 1950s.  This theory is in shape of a pyramid. There are many levels in this concept. The lowest level is related to the basic needs and on the top, there is self-actualization need. It has been seen that Maslow himself never stated this diagram to elaborate the level of needs but the pyramid is considered as one the popular way to show the hierarchy (Healy, 2016).


In this concept the first need is related with the physiological need in which the basic needs are included. Like food, water, shelter and sleep. It consists of the basic need for the individuals to survive like air, water and food. Maslow has stated that if these basic needs are not fulfilled then body and mind will not be able to perform the function. These all are the basic needs that should be given to an individual. If a person does not have these things than it is important to fulfill these basic needs so that motivation level can be enhanced (Kaur, 2013). For instance:  if a person is lacking food, safety, love and esteem need then food will be preferred  first in comparison to the other needs. If all these needs are not satisfied then it can give negative impact on the overall activities conducted by an individual. Hunger is the basic need if comparison is made with the other physiological needs of an individual. Second need is related with the safety and security in which the desire of an individual for security and safety is taken into consideration. In this the person wants security in context to the source of income, a place to live and also health. Next is social need and in this the man is considered as a social being. It is related with the socialization that should be there in the workplace. Fourth stage is related with the esteem needs. This need is related with self-respect and also such need shows self-confidence, achievement and also knowledge. Next stage is related with the self-actualization need which shows various levels like lower, intermediate and also higher needs of the individual. This is the last stage of the model which is related to fulfillment. It can be easy to motivate the employees by offering these needs (Pinder, 2014).

ERG Theory

For example: Tesco is considered as the biggest UK company that focuses on the Maslow hierarchy of needs theory.  The company emphasizes on giving basic needs like monthly payments and also the facilities like stay in a hotel. The organization also focuses on enhancing the teamwork. There are formal contracts of employment which are given by the company in context to the pension and sickness schemes. The company also focuses on personal development plans so that skills can be enhanced within the employees. By considering this theory the company can easily control the overall activities of the company.


Next theory of motivation is Alderfer – ERG theory. This theory focuses on three steps which are existence, relatedness, and growth; in this, the needs are elaborated by Alderfer. In existence needs, the basic requirement is considered like physiological and safety needs. This theory is similar to the Maslow theory. In the second factor which is relatedness needs in which the person require significant relationships, love, and belongingness. Next is growing need which focuses on the requirement for self-development, personal growth. In this need, there are components like intrinsic of the esteem needs (Olafsen, Halvari, Forest & Deci, 2015).

For example: there is a student, who has good grade and also high living standards and also works in a university. It has been seen that in this case motivation is required as a student is getting frustrated with the responsibilities that are given.  Frustration in satisfying the higher need has given an outcome in regression to a lower level needs. In this context, ERG theory is the best concept as it can elaborate the needs as a range rather than a hierarchy. Also, it is important for the managers to have proper understating of the needs of the employees so that it can be satisfied and efficiency can be enhanced. It has been stated in the ERG theory that if manager emphasizes a particular need at a time than it is not possible to motivate the employees in a proper manner.

Herzberg theory is also one of the motivation theories which are also known as a motivation-hygiene theory. In this theory, there are various factors like motivating factor and also hygiene factor. The motivating factor is related to the cause of job satisfaction, hygiene factor is related to the cause of dissatisfaction. This states that these feelings are not considered as opposite to each other. According to Herzberg, it has been seen that the job satisfiers deals with the aspects which are involved in the conducting the job and whereas there is job dissatisfied who are involved in the factors that show activities related to the job (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl & Maude, 2017).

Herzberg Theory

For instance:  the hygiene factor is related to the salary, working conditions and also work environment, safety in the company. This can enhance the dissatisfaction of the people towards the job. The motivating factor can enhance the job satisfaction and also give motivation to the people so that personal growth can be achieved.  If all these factors are effective then it can be easy for the individual to attain the above average performance and effort. For instance: if a person is having a responsibility then it can lead to satisfaction level. It has been seen that the factors related to hygiene are required so that assurance can be made that the employees are not dissatisfied. The factor of motivation is needed to ensure that employees are satisfied and also with this higher performance can be achieved. In the motivating factors, there are five factors like achievement, conduct activities itself, responsibilities and advancement. The five factors which are related to job dissatisfaction are salary, the policies of the company and also the working conditions. Motivational factor help to give positive satisfaction to the employees. In this, the emphasis is given to the opportunities related to promotion and responsibility which helps to enhance the satisfaction level and make them happy. This theory is considered as one of the effective theory and will help in enhancing satisfaction level of the employees towards the activities (Mathieu,  Fabi, Lacoursière & Raymond, 2016).


For example : it has been seen that Noble foods company which is in the UK emphasizes on offering equal wages to the workers so that equality can be managed and also maintained in the company and also it makes a positive environment in the company that focuses on enhancing the satisfaction level of the employees and make them happy. By being satisfied and happy it has been evaluated that employees can easily conduct the activities in a right manner.

Next theory is concerned with Vroom expectancy theory.  This theory is considered as one of the popular theories of motivation which is given by Victor Vroom in the expectancy theory. It is a process of cognitive theory of motivation. This theory was created on the basis of notions that individuals will only be motivated to exert an effort of high level and it is believed that there is a relation between the performance and the overall rewards. This theory basically combines many aspects of the equity theory with the aspects of behavior. It has been seen that the key constructs in the theory of motivation related to expectancy theory are valence in which it has been seen that according to Vroom it means the value which is given as reward (Zeb, Rehman, Saeed & Ullah, 2014). Next is expectancy in which it has been seen that it is concerned with the overall efforts of performance. Instrumentality is related to the belief of performance which is linked with the rewards.  There is also one equation in context to the vroom theory. The equation is


Motivation = valence*expectancy* instrumentality.

It has been seen that these all variables have high positive values which are implied on the overall performance of motivation. If the variable is on zero level then there are low chances to enhance the performance in a proper manner.

For example: In Unilever, it has been evaluated that the organization offers an incentive on the basis of the employee's performance. Also, it has been analyzed that if the employee refer any person or an individual to join the organization and after the completing of 6 months the incentive is given in a form of referral bonus. It is one of the best ways that helps to motivate the employees.

McGregor's Participation theory is also one of the theories of motivation. In this, it has been seen that there are two distinct views on the individuals which are based on the worker's involvement or participation. The theory X is considered as a negative aspect and Theory Y is considered as a positive aspect. If the focus is given on Theory X it has been seen that there are many assumptions like individuals are nature indolent and also they want to work less, the individuals are not sharp and bright and also there is lack of ambition within the people. The individuals are not ambitious.

There are also assumptions related to Theory Y. In this, it has been seen that there are individuals who are not passive by nature and they want to consider the responsibility. The focus is also given on the need that helps to achieve the specified goal (Nuttin, 2014).

Therefore, by analyzing the paper it has been concluded that motivation is an important factor that should be considered by every organization so that performance and profitability can be enhanced. If motivation is enhanced than it can also help to accomplish the overall goals. So, the company or the manager should focus on theories of motivation so that employees can be satisfied and conduct the activities effectively.

References

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L., & Maude, P. (2017). Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5).

Hauser, L. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Economics, Management and Financial Markets, 9(4), 239.

Healy, K. (2016). A Theory of Human Motivation by Abraham H. Maslow (1942)–reflection. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(4), 313-313.

Herzberg.F. (2018).Hezberg two factor theory. Retrieved from https://businessstudiesmotivation.weebly.com/hertzbergs-two-factor-theory.html.

Kaur, A. (2013). Maslow’s need hierarchy theory: Applications and criticisms. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(10), 1061-1064.

Mathieu, C., Fabi, B., Lacoursière, R., & Raymond, L. (2016). The role of supervisory behavior, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on employee turnover. Journal of Management & Organization, 22(1), 113-129.

Mcleod.S. (2018). Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html.

Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.

Nuttin, J. (2014). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Psychology Press.

Olafsen, A. H., Halvari, H., Forest, J., & Deci, E. L. (2015). Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self?determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 56(4), 447-457.

Pinder, C. C. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.

Zeb, A., Rehman, S., Saeed, G., & Ullah, H. A. (2014). Study of the Relationship between Reward and Recognition and employees Job Satisfaction: A Literature Review. Abasyn Journal Of Social Sciences, 7(2), 278-291.

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