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Verbal communication

Communication is the fundamental process of receiving and sending messages, which can be verbal and non-verbal in nature. Effective communication plays a vital role in aligning efforts to pursue goals, gain trust, and inspire positive change (Cunningham et al., 2020). Communication plays a crucial role in leadership as it helps to develop beliefs between people and encourage them to follow values, principles and objectives outlined by the organization. Leaders use leadership communication to spread information about the company mission, culture, core values, and important messages to encourage employees and build trust. It also promotes collaboration among team members, and it increases the productivity of the team members. It is essential at all levels of the organization (Cunningham et al., 2020). It creates goodwill and reputation and communicates the clarity and stability of an organization. Accurate and effective communication is vital for an individual to grow as a successful and efficient leader. Many researchers believe that leaders can take charge, encourage, direct, and stimulate others (Galli, 2021). Teams and managers need to learn how to communicate efficiently because it will directly help teams complete their projects successfully, and it also enables the organization to achieve growth and success (Galli, 2021). Good communication is the core of leadership, and it is also a vital characteristic of a good leader. Effective leadership and communication are interconnected (Banwart, 2020). This report will shed light on the essence of communication, along with that the report will outline various theories and prevalent concepts of successful leaders. Communication is the key leadership concept that plays a vital role to make a successful leader. Along with that various literature will be reviewed by emphasising the early identification of communication, theories of communication in leadership and the impact of communication on leadership. Also, recommendation to become a successful leader will also be discussed.

Communication is the two-way process where messages are transmitted between two or more individuals to produce a shared understanding. It plays a vital role in expressing oneself, and it is imperative to have practical communication skills for advancements in career. It is the fundamental existence and persistence of humans and organizations (Udin et al., 2020). It is a process of generating and sharing ideas, facts, information, views, and feelings from one person, place, or group. It is also known for directing the function of management (Udin et al., 2020).

 Communication process

Figure: 1 Communication process


Verbal communication- This communication process occurs when a person engages with another person. It can be telephonic, face-to-face, via zoom and skype. It includes both written and spoken communication (Petronio et al., 2021). Verbal communication plays a significant role in the world of business. People tend to focus and remember who speaks confidently, effectively, clearly, and charismatically. For example, Apple founder Steve jobs speech when launching iPhone is a verbal communication example because people still remember it even today (Wahyuni, 2018). It is one of the fastest modes of communication, and it is time-efficient. It allows speakers to persuade and influence listeners to agree with their opinions, thoughts, and ideas (Wahyuni, 2018).

Non-verbal communication

Non-verbal communication is the type of communication that conveys information about needs, emotion, attitudes, intentions, and thoughts without using any sign of verbal communication (Sutiyatno, 2018). It is a communication process that includes gestures, facial expressions, paralinguistics like the voice of tone or loudness, body language, personal space, proxemics, haptics, eye gaze, artifacts, and appearance. Nonverbal communications involve the unconscious and conscious processes (Sutiyatno, 2018).

Written communication involves sending messages in circulars, manuals, telegrams, reports, memos of office, letters, bulletins, etc. It is significantly a less flexible and formal method of communication (Holmes et al., 2019).

Listening- Active listening plays a vital role in communication. It encourages honesty, openness, and success. Listening is based on three basic skills, attention, attitude, and adjustment (Massonnié et al., 2022).

Visual communication - It is the practice of using visual elements to communicate ideas and information. It contains screenshots, infographics, animated GIFs, videos, and slide deck presentations (Lee & Kim, 2018).

According to (Khalifa et al., 2019), communication plays an essential role in leadership. The leader is a person who has exceptional skill set, and has the potential to mentor others. The leader can also take charge in motivating employees and help achieve their goals and organizational targets (Khalifa et al., 2019). One should be a great communicator for becoming a good leader, and great leaders always have a clear set of values. They are considered first-class communicators. They believe in teaching and promoting their ideologies to others members and due to the charismatic character, the team follow leaders (Khalifa et al., 2019). A good communicator can connect their ambitions and passions while communicating their ideas with other organization team members (Ruben & Gigliotti, 2019). They possess the ability to listen carefully to what other members are speaking. The article correctly outlined that this helps them become a reasonable observer and assists in reading other people's minds by analysing their behaviour, attitudes, ideas, and activities and being able to modify messages according to the situation. Leaders who communicate effectively to stimulate and encourage their people contemplate as best leaders. At the same time, the leaders ensure discipline, work and responsibility between their team members (Ruben & Gigliotti, 2019). They also have a precise and robust set of working principles and believe in incorporating them with their teams. Leaders who inspire their team, people, or group by communicating ideologies and aims that helps in performing efficient tasks effortlessly are considered leadership communication (Udovita, 2020). Many researchers have explained the communication concept while taking from the leadership level to lower-level spots. These skills support creating an exceptional atmosphere of understanding of communication and encouraging their teammates to follow their leader (Udovita, 2020).

As per Men et al., 2020, leadership communication is defined as encouraging and inspiring a group or individual by meaningful and systematic information sharing using admirable communication skills. It is a complex process that starts with developing a strategy for writing precisely, communicating, and effectively controlling the problematic situation. Communication in leadership has three significant aspects: managerial, corporate, and core. With the increase in the leader's portfolio, communication skills become necessary for improvising to manage on a large scale and thus becoming effective in all possible solutions (Men et al., 2020). Thus, complexity increases with the increase in the level of leadership. Core aspects of communication are writing, speaking, and approaching. Listening patiently to a team meeting, communicative understandings of culture, team management, mentoring and providing training facilities are the significant skills that help manage big groups and have managerial aspects of leadership communication (Men et al., 2020). Corporate communication skills are required at a higher level of leadership. These skills are necessary to interact externally with the team members, maintain relationships with employees, communicate during crises and change, and image building and media association. In today's scenario, most of the organization tries to win employees, customers, and business partners through effective leadership skills (Miftari, 2018). An organization with skilful leaders who are able to communicate frequently, responsively and with flawlessly planned enthusiastic communication helps to encourage not only employees but also customers and partners. They also helps to attract the stakeholders by making them develop trust in the organization (Miftari, 2018).

Written communication

Goal-oriented leadership style- As per Crews et al., 2019, every leader has a goal and vision for their team. Organizational goals and objectives are synchronized with vision and purpose, and the leaders have to communicate with the purpose and image of the team while motivating them to achieve efficiency. Effective listening, team involvement, and clear and timely communication are the main feature of this style. This type of leadership makes communication effective (Crews et al., 2019).

Employee-oriented and people-centric- As per Crews et al., 2019, this leadership style categorizes employees into active and lazy (Crews et al., 2019). Functional employee categories are enthusiastic to work hard to accomplish goals, and these types of employees are self-motivated. Laid back employees are the ones who want encouragement to perform their duties and need motivation regularly. In this leadership style, the leader helps employees get their work done by constantly touching and communicating with the employees (Adnan & Valliappan, 2019).

Behavioural leadership styles- These are categorized into two elementary leadership stages: individual-oriented and work-oriented. Inspiration, accomplishment, aptitude and readiness to take learning, accountability and knowledge in regulating activities can be achieved by positive leadership skills (Adnan & Valliappan, 2019). During communication, consequences of this style are associated with sufficient considerations for successful interaction (Adnan & Valliappan, 2019).

Leadership styles action-based- This leadership style usually emphasizes three main points: groups, assignments, and individuals. A leader concentrates on the given position on that assignment team is working on an individual issue of the team member trying to meet the assignment's deadline (Adnan & Valliappan, 2019). Here, the team's main objective is to get work done correctly, and the leader upholds the team to achieve organizational goals. It has become essential for the leader to increase and boost the group's balance by regularly communicating with them (Crews et al., 2019).  

Directive leadership styles- This style of leadership help the team achieve team targets and personal work targets by telling them suitable methods and guiding them in the right way to achieve their goals (Crews et al., 2019).   A leader enables their team to follow the right path that helps achieve their goals more perfectly and quickly by effectively communicating.

1)- When communicating with others, leaders must be confident enough. People also believe that communications are made by their leaders. Confidence helps teams perform their activities to desired goals of the group (Johnson & Hackman, 2018).

2)- Leaders should be self-motivated and energetic when communicating with their team members, and they have the qualities of trustworthiness and steadiness when speaking (Johnson & Hackman, 2018). There should be grace, value, and regularity when they communicate with the teams and modify their situation according to the listeners.

3)- A leader should be stable and focused when communicating because groups depend on a leader's effective communication to achieve stability (Johnson & Hackman, 2018). They should be comprehensive in contact and must try to overcome transformations practically and positively (Ismail et al., 2020).

4)- Leaders should also ensure to welcome suggestions and communicate with open minds and ideas for enhancement in learning style (Ismail et al., 2020). They also need to develop the art of interaction with the team members, and they need to communicate in such a way that they are talking with the team members individually (Ismail et al., 2020).


The communication problems arise from the barriers and disturbances in the transmission, which may be by the leader or a receiver. The obstacles that effect affect effective and good communication are as follows: -

1) Lack of purpose and planning before communicating with others restricts a leader from communicating with other team members (Ramlan et al., 2018).

2) Leaders, even when they decide what to communicate, but without keeping all these things in mind, the audience nature makes the communication process ineffective.

3) A leader's choice of unsuitable techniques and tools for communicating with the team members acts as a barrier and reduces the level of understanding when communication takes place (Ramlan et al., 2018).

4) One of the most significant barriers in the organization's communication network is the communication medium used for conducting the activities under effective leadership.

5) Absence of trust in each other and disrespect play a significant role in ineffective leadership communication.

6) Lack of self-confidence, courage, values, and knowledge is a barrier to communication in becoming effective (Ramlan et al., 2018).

7) Lack of leadership qualities also makes a leader communicate ineffectively.

8) Incapability in adopting changes in the environment and ignoring significant feedback while communicating is a considerable communication barrier (Ramlan et al., 2018).

Few recommendations for making effective leadership are as follows:-

1) Checking attitude- Leaders need to check their attitude because leadership becomes effective with the correct mindset. The mindset is created upon people's preparedness to serve and lead others (Rosenhead et al., 2019). An effective leader always looks for opportunities to step forward and control their actions and the actions conducted. Reasoned choice actions flow with an attitude of the leadership; it is a sensible decision to take on the role of all its responsibility and rights. Within interpersonal interactions and natural disorders, leaders with a practical mind can establish a fixed purpose. This type of leadership is determined by fulfilling personal goals and ensuring that the group achieves their objectives and fulfils its mission effectively (Rosenhead et al., 2019).

2) Listening- Communication plays an essential role in achieving organizational and interpersonal goals (Kremer et al., 2019). Communication is a two-way process; communicating effectively requires when leaders are capable of listening. It also reflects the personification of effective listening. Ineffective listening demoralizes individual self-confidence, self-esteem, and creativity. Listening and hearing are not synonymous terms (Kremer et al., 2019).

3) Expect conflict- conflict between people is an inevitable, natural, and continuous factor of human collaboration. Influential leaders imagine conflict and productively manage these conflicts (Kremer et al., 2019).  

4)- Commitment- A person who shoulders a leadership role should be committed to the group (Kremer et al., 2019). Leader internalized group’s mission and vision, and an effective leader is an individual who uses their skills and abilities to lead others, conceptualize situations, and perform technical skills. Thus in this way, it helps ensure the achievement of the goal.

 5) Follow adherence and procedures to policies- Effective leaders understand that they are accountable to the authority, and influential leaders have good followers (Kremer et al., 2019). They know how to behave in the organization and keep work on a priority basis associated with the organization's goals while having a suitable sense of self-importance. Individuals who lead in their place value the procedures and adhere to launching policies (Kremer et al., 2019).

Visual communication

6) Taking risks- It becomes imperative for leaders to step out of the box and be more innovative (Reyes et al., 2019). Leaders should be flexible enough to adopt changes positively and try new rules and procedures or implement the new policy. Taking many risks is scary, but this behaviour can be irreplaceable, benefiting the whole group (Reyes et al., 2019).

7) Be proactive- Leaders need to convey visionary (1989). People who assume leadership roles need to be familiar with the bull by moving forward to succeed (Reyes et al., 2019).

8) Telling the truth with compassion- Authors like Sanford, Trueblood, Rosenblum, and Bracey pointed to leadership's importance in truthfulness. Same time leaders also sympathetically tell the truth (e.g., faculty job performance) (Kappelman et al., 2019). Some conflicts arise because individuals cannot differentiate between their investment and task-related conflict issues (Reyes et al., 2019).

9)- Loving people- Loving in this context refers to respecting the dignity and values of the cow-workers. Leadership must be in loving organizational relationships (Reyes et al., 2019). The bottom line is that individuals must value relationships and the people with them if they claim the authority to lead (Kappelman et al., 2019).

1) Mentor relationships- Company cultures contain room for employees to grow. Decent leaders will go upstairs and beyond to provide support, training, and opportunities for their employees who have strong potential (Gahan et al., 2019). Good leadership practice best example was adapting leadership styles to accommodate the best employees in the organization. In today's time, many employees face difficulties adjusting to remote work. A transparent support and mentor system is necessary for this firm for employees to work effectively (Gahan et al., 2019).

2)- Encouraging employees to advance- Leaders are happy for their employees when they offer enough to take on the new job and new challenges. When the high turnover of talent in any leadership team is not leader generally strives for, the betterment of the organization's talent is a tool for the success and succession of individuals (Gahan et al., 2019).

3)- Making their goals public- Any leader who wants to gain leadership by succeeding in their life should have articulated priority goals. A critical practice of leadership is to make goals clear in their team and establish and share the clarity of directions as every direction of the report can support the implementation of these goals (Gahan et al., 2019). When employees know the leader's plans, it helps them reference whenever they make decisions that affect the company in the long run.  

4)- Taking chances on people- A good leadership practice is not staying bonded in certain limitations. When hiring, for example, leaders with exceptional capabilities can see beyond education in their resumes. In accomplishing complex tasks, potential clients had proven themselves in other areas. It also proves positive addition to the team.  


Effective leadership and communication together give effective leadership communication. Communication plays a significant role in the leader's life for becoming an excellent communicator. Leaders should have the proper knowledge, and they should be able to contribute that knowledge to the workplace. Also, have competency in motivating a team to achieve complex tasks in the work environment. Communication also makes leaders effective because they develop understanding in their groups. This brings trust in employees to the leaders. This improves the team's performance; team members develop congenial relation and it also creates a good work atmosphere. Working in a healthy, positive, reasonable, and pleasant environment motivates employees to work in such an environment. Different communication styles have an impact on leadership. Same in other cases, leadership also influences communication. Leader and communication are essential for success. To effectively communicate, it is very important to find a common ground and build a relationship. Leadership has become an integral part of human life. Leaders are found everywhere in workplaces, families, churches, social groups, schools, and their own lives. Same in the case of communication, it helps people to build a meaningful relationship with carers, service users, and others. It is one of the most common types of communication that the leader uses to relay information about the company's core values, culture, mission, and essential messages for encouraging employees and building trust among individuals.

The Role of Communication in Leadership


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