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Recruitment and Selection at BreadTalk Group Limited

Discuss About The International Journal Human Resource Studies.

Founded in the year 2000, BreadTalk Group Limited is a multinational food and beverage company, which is headquartered at Paya Lebar, Singapore. It is established as a bakery brand and has expanded to one thousand retail stores, which is spread all across seventeen territories. The brand portfolio consists of Toast Box, Bread Talk, Din Tai Fung, Food Republic, Bread Society, The Icing Room, RamenPlay, Thye Moh Chan and Carl’s Jr at China. Moreover, the group has the network of bakery outlets at PRC, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong. In addition to this, the company has franchised outlets of bakery all across the Middle East and Asia ( 2018).

In the year 2018, the company is planning to expand their business and open their first Din Tai Fung restaurant at London. The company’s Food Republic food courts at Singapore are situated at various shopping malls like Suntec City, Vivocity, Wisma Atria and others. Overseas, there are several food courts at Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand and People’s Republic of China. In addition to this, the group operates through various concepts in order to cater to a large number of target customers. The purpose of the research proposal is to examine the impact of recruitment and selection in BreadTalk Group Limited.

According to Bryman and Bell (2015), recruitment is discovering the potential candidates for anticipated or actual organizational vacancies. It can also be considered as an act of bringing or linking together those with the job vacancy and with those seeking for vacant job. The ideal effort of recruitment has the power to attract a large number of applicants who are qualified and experienced in their respective fields. Moreover, the organizations should also provide the candidates with adequate information, so that the unqualified ones can self-select themselves out of the job candidacy. In addition to this, a good recruiting program should have the potential of grabbing the attention of qualified applicants and not the unqualified ones. This can be done through efficient job explanation and specification.

Recruitment and selection can be considered as two different phases of the overall employment procedure; however there are certain differences between them. The first one is the procedure of searching the candidates in order to fill in the vacant position. This is done by stimulating them to send their applications for the vacant positions at organizations. The main aim is to create collection and recruit talented employees in order to enhance the selection of the best candidates. This is done by attracting the most prospective applicants to apply for the vacant position in the organization. Moreover, the basic purpose of the selection procedure is to select and recruit the right applicant, who can fill in the position of the organization (Eisenhardt 1989).

Benefits of Effective Recruitment and Selection Procedures

In the words of Gerdtham and Nilsson (2018), the overall process of recruitment is immediately followed by the procedure of selection, where the final decision makers and interviewers make the correct decision as well as the official appointment of the candidate. Voss, Tsikriktsis and Frohlich (2002) mentioned that recruitment and selection revolves around ensuring that the qualified individuals are available to meet the needs and requirements of the organization. However, it is important to mention here that ineffective recruitment tends to prevent any chance for the selection of efficient candidates. At the time, when recruitment falls short, the selection should proceed with a range of poorly experienced or qualified candidates. In addition to this, he mentioned that the overall task of recruitment helps in the generation of a sufficient range of candidates in order to ensure that there are necessary requirements and skills for filling in the positions. Yin (2017) examined that recruitment is a positive procedure of generating the right candidates for the right position at the organizations.

At BreadTalk Group Limited, the organizational leaders and managers analyze as well as prioritize their employees as well as market needs in order to channel their resources more effectively. They recruitment and selection procedure is carried out in an efficient manner, within the organization, just to ensure that the company has a pool of experienced as well as qualified workers. Moreover, positive relationship is managed through effective communication as well as mutual understanding so that the expectations of the employees are properly understood as well as communicated on both sides. In addition to this, the company promotes transparency within the workplace (Campbell 1975).

The human resource managers of the company are being assigned with the responsibility of recruiting and selecting the right candidate for the job. The overall recruitment and selection procedure is strictly monitored by the senior authorizes and the management team. Moreover, the franchise division also monitors the procedure in order to ensure that the right employee is being recruited in the franchise markets. Moreover, the organizational managers are responsible to conduct effective selection and recruitment methods, which will benefit the organizations to a large extent (Walliman 2017).

According to Armstrong and Taylor (2014), an effective recruitment procedure as well as selection methods benefits the organizations in several ways. At BreadTalk Group Limited, the organizational leaders believe that employee engagement, employee retention, sustained job performances and lower turnover are the major advantages of some good practices in the selection and recruitment procedures. All these benefits have a direct impact over the BreadTalk Group’s bottom line. Moreover, it demonstrates how important the selection and recruitment process is for the organizational workforce as well as success of the entire business. Moreover, BreadTalk Company believes that employee engagement can be regarded to the motivation, commitment level and enthusiasm, which exhibit in the performances of their job responsibilities.

Best Practices in BreadTalk Group Limited's Recruitment and Selection Processes

At BreadTalk Company, the impact of the recruitment and selection procedure is higher as the qualified applicants are able to directly impact the engagement of the employees. In the selection process of BreadTalk Group, identifying the applicants is immensely important as the company believes in hiring competent workers. The selection of the applicants is done on the basis of their work history and their level of commitment towards the organization. Sloman (2017) suggested that in-depth interviews are highly important and are considered to be an ideal way of identifying the candidates, those are enthusiastic regarding their qualifications.

In the words of Morden (2016), candidate interviews, specifically those who utilize in-depth interviews and extensive questions throw light over the job performances, competencies and skills of the applicants. It can be said that the recruitment procedure is not exact science and moreover, it requires skillful interviewers to ask questions on the basis of the job requirements. More specifically, BreadTalk Company should allow the candidates to give their elicit responses regarding the strengths as well as weaknesses of the company. Therefore, it will enable the organization to gain an understanding regarding the competencies and in-competencies of the candidates, which in turn, will benefit the organization to a huge extent.

Crawshaw, Budhwar and Davis (2017) opined that understanding the strengths and areas of improvements of the employees is highly important in predicting the prospective employees’ future performances. BreadTalk Group Limited also discusses about the employee retention and the recruiters look for the applicants who exhibit the desire of committing to one company, for a reasonable period of time. On the basis of company’s annual report, it is found that the organization has good recruitment and selection procedures and the employees are loyal towards the company.

According to Jalloh, Habib and Turay (2016), it means that the employees as well as employers of the company have a commitment towards their job, for more than just two years. In addition to this, the company believes that employee retention is highly important for the employers for good reasons, which are related to the training as well as hiring expenses and business continuity. As per Sargeant and Jay (2014) opinion, a good process of recruitment and selection helps in eliminating the applicants whose history of work as well as intent do not indicate the desire to remain with the company for more than average length of time.

On the other hand Brewster (2017) suggested that, a low turnover can be regarded as another sign of effective recruitment as well as selection process. It is especially because that majority of the company’s turnover takes place at the time of first ninety days of the employment. Moreover, the recruiters should often pin point several signs, which an applicant is prone towards the job or is less committed to stay loyal with the companies and that too, for a reasonable time period. Furthermore, it can be said that the BreadTalk Group Limited should thoroughly check as well as cross-check the work history of the applicants. The work history of the candidates highly indicates that they have been well appreciated for their previous jobs or terminated involuntarily.   

Storey (2014) mentioned that it helps the recruiters to identify the applicants easily, if their work history is monitored carefully. In addition to this, BreadTalk Company should maintain a low turnover within their organization as the employment specialists and recruiters should strictly abide by the company’s recruitment procedures. The major duty is to select and identify the candidates who appear more competent and likely to perform their activities well. It also includes remaining loyal towards the company and maintaining a stable relationship with the employers.

Analoui (2017) mentioned that bad recruitment and selection procedures have severe impact towards the company’s reputation. It can cost the company a lot of money and whole lot of efforts. In addition to this, bad methods of selection and recruitment have a negative impact towards the whole business. Supposedly, BreadTalk Group Limited has a weak procedure of selection and recruitment; the company will suffer to a large extent as the recruiters will keep on hiring below average workforce or performers. Several recruiting leaders and managers go through a hard time in getting their recruitment function fully funded.

BreadTalk Group Limited found that a good recruitment procedure have a serious impact over their profit margins and revenue and that too, in a positive manner. According to Harney, Dundon and Wilkinson (2018), without proper quantification, the senior executives of the company do not see the expenses of the lost revenue, resulting from the under-funded functionality of recruitment or selection. On the contrary, Tyson (2017) examined that there is one exception towards this lack of quantification within the companies, where increased revenue results from the top talents of the organizations. As mentioned by Huemann (2016), now a day, the main topic of discussion within the corporate world is how to select and recruit the best candidate for the success of the business. He further said that bad recruitment procedures affect the business to a huge extent and that too, in a negative manner.

BreadTalk Company needs to keep a track of their recruitment procedures as a bad recruitment procedure can cost a lot of money, as mentioned by Gill (2018). In addition to this, it can reduce the sales of their products, which can arise from a bad experience of the candidates. By providing the candidates with a bad experience, the company angers or frustrates them. Moreover, a significant portion of the disillusioned candidates can strike back for a longer period of time. If the experiences of the recruitment are negative, it is more likely that the candidates will not buy any products or avail the services of the company. In addition to this, there are chances, that the company might lose a large chunk of their product sales and even a nine percent of the candidates’ close ones or relatives. This in turn, enhances their profitability as well. Therefore, it is immensely important to maintain a good relationship with the candidates, even if they do not get selected for the company as per Thunnissen (2016).

It always makes sense to identify the ones who get interviewed and if they are the present customers of the company or not. BreadTalk Group Limited needs to ensure that the interviewees are their current customers and therefore, it is important for them to be responsive towards them, if they do not get selected. On the other hand, Gerpott (2015) examined that reduced revenue results from recruiting below average candidates, which can impact the companies to a large extent. The BreadTalk Company needs to make sure that the recruiters do not recruit below average performers and the revenue generating jobs are measurable as well as significant towards the entire procedure.

In addition to this, Van Waeyenberg et al. (2017) examined that there can be severe negative impacts for job positions like customer services, product development and other factors as the underperformances of the employees may mar the reputation of the company. This will be bad for the BreadTalk Company as poor hiring may result into less innovation and creativity within the company’s products as well as poor customer services after the sales. Furthermore, as per Gerpott (2015), poor recruitment procedures results into poor productivity of the employees and give rise to below average performers within the company.

It is evident that a weak employee will yield lower quality and productivity for the company. Most importantly, a weak employer or recruiter tends to recruit weak candidates, which in turn proves to be disadvantageous for the company itself. Therefore, in such cases, the impact of the recruitment and selection procedure is severe for the companies. At BreadTalk Group Limited, the organizational leaders and supervisors ensure that the interviewer or recruiter is strong and experienced enough to carry out the entire recruitment procedure. The recruitment procedure decides the future of the company and checks, whether the company is going on the right track or not (Thunnissen 2016).

According to Analoui (2017), having an experienced and strong employer can help in increasing the quality of the recruitment process and enhance it by nine percent. On the contrary, Brewster (2017) mentioned that a weak process of recruitment can lower the productivity of the company, which in turn will impact its profitability as well. For example, if the BreadTalk Company’s hiring procedure produce ten percent below the average performances, the company may face severe losses of around fourteen thousand dollars per year.

There is more estimation for weak recruitment procedures as well, according to Campbell (1975). Those are; negative consumer impacts, accidents, job errors, negative business impacts upon the stakeholders, weak performances of the company and as a result, the organization may cease to operate. Moreover, Bryman and Bell (2015) explained that a bad experience of the candidates can reduce the power of the company’s brand. Mostly at reputed organizations or firms, the brand of the employer is however; difficult to separate from the brand of the products. The added costs which are related to the organizations can get replaced by the mis-hires. Weak hires can often lead to premature resignations of the employees.

On the contrary, Gerdtham and Nilsson (2018) gave a different point of view regarding the impact of recruitment and selection over the companies. He mentioned that beyond the recruitment expenses or costs, the company also suffers from other negative factors. These factors are loss of valuable time and reputation, physical labor of the recruiters or interviewers, negative impact over the company’s stakeholders, less productivity as well as profitability and others. Similarly, Cashman, Wall and Davy (2016) examined that a bad experience of the candidates also have the potential of reducing the future job applications of prospective candidates. Having a negative experience of the candidates disillusions other candidates.

As the result of disillusionment, the companies can lose out valuable opportunities of carrying out future recruitment procedures. Armstrong and Taylor (2014) gave some valuable insights regarding carrying out effective recruitment procedures and some solutions to weak processes. BreadTalk Company can carry out their recruitment procedure in a selective manner, just to lessen its negative impact over their reputation. In several organizations, once the executives realize the bigger difference in the business impact of product sales, lesser employee productivity and lower quality of the applicants, the company will get highly benefitted. Moreover, it is immensely important to provide adequate funding that is required, in order to lessen those negative impacts of the business.

Sloman (2017) mentioned that the performances of the employees are hugely important for all the business enterprises, at both developed as well as developing nations. The overall increase in the business closure, failure and poor performances, in terms of productivity is quite alarming. For those companies to be sustained, the employees have very important roles to play just to ensure that the companies attain a certain level of competitive advantage over their competitors, all across the world. Morden (2016) examined that the selection and recruitment strategy have a serious impact over the employee performances as well.

At BreadTalk Group Limited, the employers also utilize the employment agencies for the recruitment and selection procedures, but it should be open to disclose any kind of responsibility, job descriptions or salary scale to them. The acceptance of the referral candidates from active and committed employees for the employment can also be recommended as it helps in enhancing monitoring, mentoring, coaching and obedience among the employees. Walliman (2017) advised that the recruitment and selection should be completely based upon the capabilities of the applicants to perform effectively, the job responsibilities rather than the considerations, on the basis of the host community influencers.

It can be said that the BreadTalk Company needs to concentrate more on acquiring the appropriate human capital as they consider their employees as the most precious and valued assets of the enterprise. On recruiting the employees, the BreadTalk Group Limited should also check the compatibility level of the employees, as it will converge to create the overall level of performances for the organization. In addition to this, the company should also be able to revise the entire strategy of careful recruitment and select the most suitable applicants as it will help in enhancing the competitive advantages, on the international platform. As per Sargeant and Jay (2014), recruiting the rightful candidate has become a matter of concern for all the organizations as it is highly important to fill in the vacant position in an efficient manner.

According to Amin et al. (2014), performance of the employees is an important part of any business enterprise in both the developed and developing economies. There has been tremendous increase in business failure, poor performance among the employees, closure of organization and productivity is hampered at an alarming rate in today’s business world. In this particular article, the organizations of Nigeria were used as an instance where lack of recruitment and selection led to failure in business organizations. Therefore, BreadTalk in Singapore should consider the problem on a serious note and take care of their selection and recruitment process. In order to maintain sustainability in the organization, the employees need to play a significant part for maintaining competitive advantage of the organization. In the contemporary business environment, there is more focus on the dynamism and competition rather than sales and production. It is proving to be effective in combating the challenges by enhancing product quality, productivity and service delivery. Anosh, Hamad and Batool (2014) stated that it has become possible due to improvement of employee performance and selecting the right people in the right task. The current organizations are highlighting more on acquiring proper human capital as they are treating employees as the most valuable possession of the organization.

In the context of BreadTalk, it can be stated that the individual performance of the employees congregate with the entire performance of the organization. Therefore, the management of the company needs to be careful while making new recruitments and selection of employees in their organization. As it is a multinational food and beverage company, so it has ample rivals in the competitive industry. Therefore, the company needs to think of ways by which it can stay ahead in the competition by finding new strategies. Proper recruitment and selection of employees is one such strategy that is followed by BreadTalk to have a powerful impact. Recruitment is a major concern in most of the organizations as it is becoming difficult to get the right candidate for the right position (Bolton, Laaser and McGuire 2018).

On the other hand, Dee and Wyckoff (2015) countered that the increasing significance of human resources is one of the important developments in the current business environment. Employees are important assets of the organizations and BreadTalk is strictly maintaining that. They consider their employees as the pillars of the organization who provide important perspectives, attributes and values for the betterment of organizational performance. Dipboye (2017) mentioned that human capital is highly focused in terms of organizational wealth because individual development, competency of the employees and the development of the organizational processes are the pivotal factors of the organization. Recruitment is observed as the process of seeking, recognizing and retaining the potential candidates either from within or outside the organization. This process affects the organizational performance in terms of future employment where selection is initiated with the right capability of the appropriate candidates. However, there are certain underlying elements in the recruitment and selection process that are subjective to inherent judgment. When the employees are treated positively and in a good way, they are left with a positive impression about the organization. Experienced employees prove that their appointment was effective in posing a strong impact on the varied aspects of the organizational life. On the contrary, improper selection and recruitment of employees has the ability to damage the reputation of the employees. The recruitment and selection of employees in the organization provides a scope for a favorable atmosphere in the organization (Fusar- Poli et al. 2015). The literature which were reviewed in the light of the topic has argued to certain extent that the success of an organization such as BreadTalk is directly associated with the employees who work in the business organization rather than the third- party individuals.

BreadTalk Group Limited is a multinational food and beverage company, which is headquartered in Singapore. This company was founded in 2000 as a bakery brand and gradually expanded with 1000 retail stores in 17 territories. The brand has own outlets not only in Singapore but also in China, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand. Recently in 2018, this brand will open their first outlet in London, which is named as Din Tai Fung restaurant. They have crossed several milestones in their long journey since 2000. BreadTalk has opened their first outlet in July 2000, which was named as Bugis Junction. In 2003, they had opened their first outlet in Shanghai (Gamage 2014). In 2007, they had successfully launched their first Food Republic in Kuala Lumpur. The poutlet in Oman was opened in the year 2008. BreadTalk became the first brand of Singapore to win ‘Growth market Retailer of the Year’ award at the World Retail Awards in 2014. Again, they have made a joint venture to penetrate the UK market in 2016. In addition, BreadTalk has other markets in Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

The topic of this research review is based on the impact of Recruitment and Selection in BreadTalk. Based on this topic, it can be stated that the better way in which organizations select and recruit employees, there is a better chance of hiring and retaining employees. Moreover, the selection and recruitment procedure of the organization is influenced by the bottom- line results such as productivity of the organization and the financial performance of the organization. Employee performance is an important part of any organizational activities because under achievement on the part of the employees can result to failure of workplace productivity. Different literature was reviewed to focus on the intensity of the problem and find out the impact posed by proper selection and recruitment of employees. Recruitment in BreadTalk was effective and that is the reason for their excellence in the market (Guedes 2015). It is a fact that outsourcing of the human resource functions such as recruitment and selection of employees is a major trend in different organizations, which affects the organizational strategies in a positive manner. BtreadTalk can be suggested to incorporate such strategies within their organization to be more competent and stay ahead of the rival companies in the industry. The following section will look into the research methods used for collecting data on the particular HR problem.

There are different research methods used in the process of studying a particular problem and conducting a survey on the same. Data and information are collected from different sources using different methods. The four methods of data collection are interviews, questionnaires and surveys, observations and focus groups. Given below are the brief about these four types of data collection methods in a research.

Interviews: data is collected in the form of interviews either in- person or via telephone. It can be done in a formal manner by maintaining a structure or semi- structure or in an informal manner. In an interview, the questions must be focused with clear distinction among all the questions. Mostly open- ended questions are asked in an interview procedure and it is qualitative in nature. For instance, one- on- one interview can be conducted between the Hr manager and the employee of an organization to know about the issue that he is facing in the organization and which is hampering his work productivity (Guha, Hyler and Darling- Hammond 2017)

Questionnaire and surveys: in this type of data collection methods, responses are evaluated following quantitative methods by allocating numerical values. The results of the process are comparatively easier to evaluate than in qualitative techniques. In this particular kind, pretest or posttest can be conducted for comparison and evaluation of the collected data. For instance, a survey is conducted with the help of questionnaire among all the employees of the organization to gather feedback about a new process or about the new team leader. Such surveys are mostly conducted in an anonymous manner (Houghton et al. 2017).

Observations: the data collected in this particular process permits the research on the dynamics of a situation where the frequency of target behavior is counted. In this type, other behaviors of the respondents are determined by the requirements of the evaluation process. It is considered as an important source to collect information about a particular group where video can be used as an authentic source of documentation. It is responsible for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data in the form of narration or instructional time. For instance, employees in an organization can be observed to make judgment about their workplace behavior and ask them for a meeting if any change is required in their behavior (Marie Ryan and Derous 2016).

Focus groups: this type of data collection methods is conducted among a facilitated group of individuals. They are interviewed based on some common values, attitudes or behaviors. In this way, information is collected by integrating the perspectives and opinions of the group of respondents, which are categorized into codes for thematic analysis. For instance, a group of employees of the same department in an organization is called over to make them work with another group in other department to improve the productivity of the organization (Oaya, Ogbu and Remilekun 2017).

In the context of the impact of recruitment and selection in BreadTalk, the two best methods of data collection can be- interviews and questionnaires and surveys. The justification for selecting these two methods is given below.

As per Petty, Manroop and Linton (2015), interviews are important for collecting detailed information about the individual feelings, opinions and perceptions of the respondents. The recruiters and managers of the organization were interviewed to know about their selection criteria of the new employees. A personal interview will be conducted with everyone involved in the process of recruiting and selecting employees. Interviews are helpful in doing an in-depth analysis of the problem by considering several factors, which are not possible in any other methods of data collection. Interviews are effective in attaining a high response rate from the respondents as the words of the interviewees are recorded (Roth et al. 2016). Moreover, interviews are useful in finding out the perceptions of the individual managers in selecting and recruiting employees from either inside or outside the organization. This is also an effective process in understanding and studying the perceptions of the managers about their particular decision about the recruitment of the employees. The organization BreadTalk is a multinational company and therefore, it is very important that they make the right decision while selecting and recruiting employees. It will be helpful in maintaining their competitive advantage in the food and beverage industry by an informed decision- making, strategic planning and resource allocation. One- to one interviews are helpful in extracting personal opinions from the interviewees, which they would not be able to share otherwise (Saviour et al. 2017). Ambiguities can be easily clarified in the form of interviews and complete answers from the respondents. It has a positive impact on the organization, as there is no leakage of information to other sources. This is because interviewees do not get the scope of being influenced by anyone else in the organization. Data collection in the organization BreadTalk will help the management to add a living edge to the impersonal data thus, widening the understanding and concept of statistical data (Shailashree and Shenoy 2016).

According to Van Den Besselaar and Sandström (2016), the primary benefits of using questionnaires in surveys are that a wide range of people can be accessed in an effective as well as economic manner. The answers received from the survey respondents are easy to analyze and evaluate for further studies. With the use of a standard questionnaire in the survey, quantifiable answers are available for the research topic. For BreadTalk organization, surveys will be a good method of data collection using questionnaire, as it is totally cost- effective. There might be a certain amount spend to offer incentives to the respondents of the survey but that is much less in comparison to the cost associated with other data collection methods (Van Iddekinge et al. 2016). Moreover, surveys by using questionnaires will be much effective in gathering data from a wide range of employees of the BreadTalk organization. This is because surveys are efficient in explaining the characteristics and behaviors of a large population, unlike other methods of data collection. In this particular method, accuracy is maintained while selecting sample for attaining the targeted outcome. Thus, it becomes easy to derive conclusion and make significant decision about the research problem. As the research topic is based on the impact of recruitment and selection in BreadTalk, therefore the process of survey will be best suitable for maintaining anonymity and confidentiality by mailing the surveys to the employees of the organization in their official mail id. This will be effective in gathering effective feedback from the employees, as they will be able to respond with the help of candid and valid answers. Surveys are successful when employees are open and honest in responding to the survey questions (Yaseen 2016). It is possible only when they are aware of the fact that the surveys are not asking for their personal details in any form.


It can be concluded from this research review that there is a strong impact of recruitment and selection of employees on organizational performance and the instance of BreadTalk was used throughout this research paper. A literature review was conducted as a part of secondary analysis of the research topic. Different academic papers and journal articles were analyzed to find out that recruitment and selection plays a pivotal role in enhancing the performance of the organization. With respect to BreadTalk, it was found out that the recruitment of the appropriate staff in the right position has helped in sustaining the organizational performance and providing them a competitive advantage in the market. Not only in BreadTalk, but it is applicable for any organization in the business environment. The positive effect of the recruitment and selection procedure largely influences the business results from the ground level in the form of productivity and economic performances of any organization.

In the course of this report, different methods of data collection were explained which included interviews, observations, surveys and questionnaires and focus groups. All these types of data collection methods were explained to select the two best suitable methods applicable for the research topic. With respect to the multinational organization BreadTalk, interviews and surveys and questionnaires were selected as the two most appropriate methods of data collection. The reason and justification for using these two methods were explained in detail to find out their appropriate use in the organization. This research review has given a clear idea that there is a strong impact of recruitment and selection in Breadtalk by focusing on their success from the day of their inception. It can be thus inferred that, the organization is able to overcome the barrier and maintain a successful position in the market by utilizing the positive sides of recruitment and selection on their organizational performance.


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