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Discussion

Discuss about the Past And Future Of the Human Resource.

When the new millennia began in the year of 2000, it started a revolution in many business sectors around the world and even in the daily lives of the common people. The internet went viral and brought forth ideas which were not thought possible few years before. Social media started to connected people across the world within a matter of seconds and since then, humanity tried to improvise more and more. The world changed dramatically over the past 40 years, reshaped by factors that were defined by technological advancements and a new generation of employees with creativity and smart work (Bennett, C.C. and Hauser, K., 2013). Previously, companies relied on annual reviews to sort out an employee or use the means of draconian strategies to start competition between one employees against another. Nowadays large organizations use a less formal approach and assessing by flexible methods, employees are assessed on how they think, work in a team and how well they contribute. Flexible work slots and schedules have brought a different way altogether to evaluate work. Rather than working for long hours which was previously mandatory in a lot of companies, now it is looked that what is actually done within the allocated time.

Having said that, the society slowly and steadily move further into the future, people gets more and more dependent on machines and electronics to do their work for them, not just because they save time and effort but because most organizations are totally operated and relied on them (Nilsson 2014). After the invention of artificial intelligence and robotics, it is debatable whether people operate the machine or whether the machine operates the people (Barrett et al. 2015). This analysis will give an overview of the professions of the modern society that how they have changed over the past decades and how they can change because of the introduction of artificial intelligence and robotics into the modern world.

One of the very necessary profession to sustain the society is that of all the people working in the profession of health industry. The profession of the doctors are noble and demanding at the same time. The profession has mainly depended on the scientific knowledge of the human anatomy. The veterinary doctors on the other hand need to be proficient about the anatomy of animals. In the past few decades the profession has changed radically due to fast advancement of technology and medicine.

Doctor

The year 1970 marked one of the most important years in the history of medicine when the first “immunosuppressive drugs” were introduced (Foster 2014). The immune system of the human body could be altered and controlled by outside artificial means (Van Sandwijk, Bemelman and Ten Berge 2013). The changes that came in the following decades mainly constituted of the way diseases are identified and the way medical intervention was utilised to counteract the effects of the disease producing microbes also changed.  In 1971 the CT scan system was introduced which was a major milestone in the field of disease detection. Today it is widely used to detect and determine many diseases (Collen and Ball, 2015). In the year 1973 the Laser eye surgery was introduced. With the change of the technology in the medical field the Human Resource processes of the field also changed radically. The doctors were in the early times mainly working as independent free lancers however with the establishment of a unified and systematised medical system the doctors were now managed by the human resource managers. The government employ a large number of doctors in the government owned and run hospitals. These professionals are now under the government human resource department who can direct them to do a particular job in a particular region as required by the department. On the other hand the doctors who are working with the big medical organisations are under the human resource process as well unlike the early days of the profession (Bynum 2013).

In Australian context the workforce engaged in providing healthcare is growing faster than the population. The number of doctors working in the Australian Industry were 32,000 in 2001 which increased to 43,400.

Image 1: Increase in Australian health professional over the years.

Source: (Abs.gov.au 2018)

The future of the medical profession and the associated human resource process looks promising as well. In the next 30 years it's going to become almost unrecognizable from what it is today. This is going to be driven by three things artificial intelligence algorithms and robotics (Wishart 2016). Artificial intelligence and algorithms are going to work together to help do a much better job of diagnosing diseases a selecting the correct treatments for patients. Already IBM's Watson computer is doing a lot of work at the moment it's focused in on the cancer environment but very soon it's going to be extended across to every disease (Ferrucci 2012). what they're doing at IBM is they are feeding the supercomputer Watson with every single piece of medical information ever known by anybody anywhere as well as all of the medical records that they can get their hands on (Doyle-Lindrud 2015). Watson is then doing a whole lot of different correlations and causations and looking for patterns and that whole big data analysis to try and find out the causes of various diseases and to do a better job (Lally et al. 2012). Cancer doctors are getting about a 70% accurate diagnosis first time whereas Watson is running at above 95% accuracy and with ten years from now with the amount of computing Watson will do the diagnosis of diseases as well as the selection of the treatments (Rachlin 2012). The doctor needs to improve his or her bedside manner in people skills because it's going to be a lot more about caring for people it is going to be about preventing diseases and using Watson as an assistant to help. In addition to AI and algorithms, robots are better at AI surgery than human doctors and may be within 10 to 15 years humans and machines are going to work alongside each other so a doctor in the future is going to have to learn how to work with machines. All of these are new skills hardly taught at medical schools these days. Doctors are going to have to specialize in caring for elderly people in the future.

Film Making

The motion picture industry involves the technological and commercial institutions regarding filmmaking such as animation, cinematography, production, screenwriting and much more. In the year of 1867, William Lincoln created a contraption known as “zoopraxiscope” which changed the entertainment industry forever. As time went further, people started to create their own versions of the portable camera and created styles and ideas based on their own experiences and personal level which has left a pathway for new coming artists for centuries down the line. Later on it created figures that are the milestone of the entertainment industry (Bartindale, Schofield and Wright 2016).

The 1970s was considered to be a golden era as just three to four decades had passed since the Talkies were formed and the color television was introduced. In Australia, a new generation of film makers like Gillian Armstrong, Peter Weir, George Miller, Coppola came into the limelight and changed entertainment as one know, they were able to use much relaxed attitudes like deception of sex, violence and strong languages, whereas from Australia veteran actors like High Jackman, Nicole Kidman, Geoffrey Rush and Heath Ledger to name a few, were able to portray some of the best characters in film picture. The conditions were perfect for experimentation for the directors and actors alike. George Lucas brought Star Wars which is considered to be a milestone for science fiction entertainment even for today.

As film making industry is evolving daily, one gets to see special effects like VFX and 3D projection being created with ease. Nowadays most of the special effects are done by the means of computer (Meyer, Song and Ha 2016). Now to think, in the year of 2060 film makers are able to create a CGI character who would appear so realistic that people will not be able to distinguish between the performance of a real actor and the digital replica (Capstick and Ludwin 2015). Humankind would be able to create fully digital actors who can replicate human emotions. Currently film makers are not at that level on advancement; however a CGI character appearing in a film or a game can give a realistic emotional display which is really amazing in contrast to few decades from now. Previously people used to depend a lot on stunt works or to create a scene where a city is being demolished, they used cardboard buildings. In the 1954 movie, Godzilla, the actor Haruo Kakajima wore a 200 pound suit made out of wires, bamboo, fabric, latex to portray the role of the monster as he tore down cardboard buildings and in the film, it would appear that he is destroying cities (Goodess 2013). However in the 2014 versions, the whole monster was done by the means of CGI and was much more realistic looking.  

In the 1993 film Jurassic Park, by the means of robotics Steven Spielberg was able to portray the dinosaurs in such a realistic when which was not imaginable, however in contrast to the film Jurassic World in 2015, the movements and appearance would look more flexible and lifelike. If one looks ahead in time to see the film industry business in the 2060s, one thing is certain that that if a movie like Jurassic Park or Jurassic World is made then, it would be so realistic that it would be hard to tell whether one is watching (Schleser, Wilson and Keep 2013). Just like the film Blade Runner in 1982, the world might actually appear like that, with flying cars and technology so advance that CGI human beings would roam with people in the streets and it would be hard to differentiate between people and them. One thing is more or less certain that film makers all around the world would be able to create scenarios in their films which cannot be done today; just like in the 1970s it was not possible to create a visual masterpiece like Star Wars or 2001: A Space Odyssey (Zhang et al. 2015).

Education is the primary stepping stone based on which the young generation are prepared and readied for their future. The teachers are the backbone of the education system. In the last few decades the way education is imparted in children has been radically changed by various technological, theoretical and procedural perspectives. The classrooms have been changed in terms of technology. In the early times the teachers had been engaged in a one way process of knowledge transmission. The classroom environments were one way knowledge transmitting zones with one way communication and the teaching method was not technologically advanced or supported by multimedia means. The teachers also either work under the government education department in the different schools of the administration or the private schools. There are various models that can be applied to the process of teaching in the early times which are fast changing in the modern times. The early teaching human resource proves was static in which the teachers were designated their responsibilities by the authorities as per the will of the authorities. In modern times the need of the students and the skills of the teachers are analysed and the responsibilities are designated after such considerations in the modern times.  

In Australian context “the student/teacher ratio in primary schools declined from 20.8 to 16.9 students per teacher” this happened between the years 1982 and 2002. The declining ratio of teachers and students is healthy for educational context in a country. This means individual teachers will be giving more attention to the individual students. Historically there have been more women appointed as teachers than men, and constituted about 64% in 1995 (Abs.gov.au 2018).

Making use of development to allow students the adaptability to discover answers for issues both openly and helpfully is a power for good. Educators try students to interface with the subject past a shallow level. Educators require them to be dynamic students, who have a hunger for exposure and learning. Development puts the world in the hands of every student inside the limits of the classroom. This is done by technological intervention and utilisation of Artificial Intelligence in the process of teaching and learning (Wenger 2014). There are various conduct by which advancement can be used as a piece of the classroom to interface with students and support “empowering, attracting and interesting” lessons. For greater number of educators it feels absurd to allow the students the space to discover courses of action as these won't not be the ones that instructors require them to find. Allowing the usage of development in the classroom has freed educators from my limitations of lesson-plans. Many instructors encounter empowering the adaptability to look and locate the subject through advancement has energized a fondness for the subject. iPads and other versatile advancement are the present innovative interventions used for educating. Despite the way that, they will have an impact later on, four years earlier the iPad didn't exist. Most don't understand what will be the present development in another four. Perhaps it will be wearable contraptions, for instance, Google Glass, regardless of the way that it is assumed that tablets will regardless be used as a piece of direction. With the rapid growth in the field of Artificial Intelligence the teachers themselves will not have to do everything in the classrooms, rather they will take part in taking care of the students and explain them the complexities if necessary (Göranzon and Josefson 2012). The more technical works like distribution of notes or conducting lectures will be done by Artificial Intelligence, and robots, in this way the human resource management in this profession will be affected by AI and robots. In future, educating and learning will be social. Things are starting at now moving thusly with the improvement of “massive open online courses” (MOOCs). Advancement can consistently be an obstacle to educating and learning. The cloud will go far to removing this limit.

Conclusion

The human resource process has gone through rapid changes in the recent times with the advent of artificial intelligence and robotics. The important professions discussed above are all part of that change process. The way doctors, teachers, film makers, or any other professionals work and manage human resource have changed rapidly in the past decades and the future looks bright and promising for technological intervention in the process. However there is a big possibility of people losing their jobs because of Artificial Intelligence and Robots taking over their jobs. This is already happening in more labour intensive jobs where previously human conducted and now these are completed and conducted by robots. In most of the assembly lines of cars and machines more than half of the work is done by Robots.

In the coming years the doctors will be depending more on artificial intelligence and robots both in terms of detecting diseases and treating the patients. Artificially intelligent classroom setups and robots will aid teachers to train the students. Therefore from the above discussion it can be stated that film making has evolved dramatically over the last few years and is evolving even more. Cinematography has changed the overview of people used to think and how they can think. It is easier for film makers to travel to exotic location, they can even shoot inside the studio with green background and then edit the whole scene to any desired location (Nash 2013). Though it also looks that robotics would actually replace the jobs of people however on the bright side, it would make work more effective. As long as the artists create stories and the people keep n watching, it is certain that this industry will not stop anytime soon.

Reference:

Abs.gov.au. (2018). 4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2003. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/459c3882fad473a2ca2570eb0083be84!OpenDocument

Abs.gov.au., 2018. 4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, April 2013. [online] Abs.gov.au. Available at: https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20April+2013 [Accessed 23 May 2018].

Barrett, M., Davidson, E., Prabhu, J. and Vargo, S.L., 2015. Service innovation in the digital age: key contributions and future directions. MIS quarterly, 39(1), pp.135-154.

Bartindale, T., Schofield, G. and Wright, P., 2016, May. Scaffolding Community Documentary Film Making using Commissioning Templates. In proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2705-2716). ACM.

Bennett, C.C. and Hauser, K., 2013. Artificial intelligence framework for simulating clinical decision-making: A Markov decision process approach. Artificial intelligence in medicine, 57(1), pp.9-19.

Bynum, W.F., 2013. Companion encyclopedia of the history of medicine. Routledge.

Capstick, A. and Ludwin, K., 2015. Place memory and dementia: Findings from participatory film-making in long-term social care. Health & place, 34, pp.157-163.

Collen, M.F. and Ball, M.J. eds., 2015. The history of medical informatics in the United States. Springer.

Doyle-Lindrud, S., 2015. Watson will see you now: a supercomputer to help clinicians make informed treatment decisions. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 19(1).

Ferrucci, D.A., 2012. Introduction to “this is watson”. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 56(3.4), pp.1-1.

Foster, W.D., 2014. A history of medical bacteriology and immunology. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Goodess, C.M., 2013. How is the frequency, location and severity of extreme events likely to change up to 2060?. Environmental Science & Policy, 27, pp.S4-S14.

Göranzon, B. and Josefson, I. eds., 2012. Knowledge, skill and artificial intelligence. Springer Science & Business Media.

Lally, A., Prager, J.M., McCord, M.C., Boguraev, B.K., Patwardhan, S., Fan, J., Fodor, P. and Chu-Carroll, J., 2012. Question analysis: How Watson reads a clue. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 56(3.4), pp.2-1.

Meyer, J., Song, R. and Ha, K., 2016. The effect of product placements on the evaluation of movies. European Journal of Marketing, 50(3/4), pp.530-549.

Nash, M., 2013. Unknown spaces and uncertainty in film development. Journal of screenwriting, 4(2), pp.149-162.

Nilsson, N.J., 2014. Principles of artificial intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann.

Rachlin, H., 2012. Making IBM’s computer, Watson, human. The Behavior Analyst, 35(1), pp.1-16.

Schleser, M.R., Wilson, G. and Keep, D., 2013. Small screen and big screen: Mobile film-making in Australasia. Ubiquity: The Journal of Pervasive Media, 2(1-2), pp.118-131.

Van Sandwijk, M.S., Bemelman, F.J. and Ten Berge, I.J., 2013. Immunosuppressive drugs after solid organ transplantation. Neth J Med, 71(6), pp.281-9.

Wenger, E., 2014. Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems: computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge. Morgan Kaufmann.

Wishart, D.S., 2016. Emerging applications of metabolomics in drug discovery and precision medicine. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 15(7), p.473.

Zhang, J., Zhang, M., Lin, L. and Wang, X., 2015. Sol Processing of Conjugated Carbon Nitride Powders for Thin?Film Fabrication. Angewandte Chemie, 127(21), pp.6395-6399.

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